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New Research In Brain

 Research-1

EEG Feature Extraction in Brain-Mobile Phone Interfaces

Aims: The paper describes four methods for extracting features of brain signals in frequency and time domain that can be used as parameters for identifying the face images of people.

Place and Duration of Study: Human Computer Interface Lab, Karpagam University, India (July 2012-June 2014)
Methodology: The subject is asked to remember different known face images like father, mother and so on and the corresponding Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are captured. Wigner Ville Distribution and other spectral methods are used for studying the features. The data was collected from 15 subjects having good mental health condition. Real EEG records from different subjects are taken for duration of 10 seconds in each trial. 10 such trials are taken from each test subject.
Results: It is noticed that the band of frequencies in the range 0-40 Hz shows higher spectral variations, due to “remembering” or retrieving memories possibly due to the presence of Alpha or Beta waves. Using Fourier spectrum analysis it is found that, the EEG signals corresponding to the face image of one person (e.g: Mother) was always giving a different range of values for the number of spectral crossings, in comparison to the second face image (eg: Father). During the Wigner Ville analysis the peak value of instantaneous power in one case was seen in the range of 2x105 to 3x105for father’s face whereas for mother’s face in the range of 0.5x106 to 1x106. In the Power Spectral Density based analysis, the frequency range of 10-20 Hz showed a higher average value in case of mother’s face than in father’s. When the mean signal power was calculated from PSD for different trials, it is noticed that the signal power is significantly different in cases of father and mother and gavea 70-90% of correct classification result.
Conclusion: After identifying the features that are unique for a face image, the same is proposed to be used for the address book dialing in a smart phone which can be further used for helping physically disabled as well as normal people to interact with external world.

Keywords :Brain Machine Interface (BMI); Brain Computer Interface (BCI); EEG signal processing; power spectral density; instantaneous power; wigner-ville distribution; biomedical signal processing

Research-2

Gut Uptake, Brain and Behaviour

Aims: To document the evidence for a gut uptake to brain axis. The many hormones, many of them peptides and shared by the intestines and the brain, will not be included in this survey.

Methods: Systematic looking through journal publications by means of Pub med and collected information and authors research since 1978.
Results: Food-protein antibodies, food-protein derived peptides and direct physiological evidence point to considerable effect of the digestive system on behavior and mood. Removal of specific proteins from diet ameliorates the clinical condition.
Conclusion: Uptake from the gut of various substances has effect on behaviour.

Keywords :Gut uptake; antibodies; peptides; behaviour.

Reasearch-3

 Effectiveness of Brain-based Learning Strategy on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Knowledge Retention in Electrochemistry

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Brain-Based Learning strategy on students’ academic achievement, attitude, motivation and knowledge retention in Electrochemistry. The study used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. A total of 87 Senior Secondary Two students from two intact classes from North-Eastern part of Nigeria with an average age of 17 years of 2015/2016 academic session participated in this study. One of the classes served as the experimental group that used Brain-Based Learning (N=40) while the other was control group that used Lecture-Based Teaching method (N=47). Data were collected through achievement test, attitude and motivation scales. The data collected were analyzed with means, independent t-test, and Analysis of Covariate which were used to compare the groups’ scores. The findings of the study reve­aled that the Brain-Based Learning approach used in the experimental group was more effective in incre­asing student achievement, attitude and motivation of students towards chemistry than the Lecture-Based approach used in the control group. It was identified that the difference between retention test scores were also statistically significant in favour of experimental group.

Keywords :Brain-based learning; electrochemistry; academic achievement; attitude; motivation; knowledge retention.

Research-4

The Relationship between Brain Dominance and Academic Performance: A Cross-sectional Study

Aims: To study the relationship between brain dominance and academic performance among undergraduates.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC), Melaka campus, Malaysia, from April 2014 to June 2014.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical college and a total of 168 students participated. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaires. It consisted of the personal profile and 3 validated questionnaires to identify the brain dominance. Academic performance of a student is obtained from the student academic office based on the roll numbers written on the questionnaire. Written informed consent was taken from the students before they participate in this research. Analysis of the data was done using EpiInfo7, with significance level set at .05 and 95% confidence level.

Results: Our study shows that there is no significant association between brain predilection and academic performance (P>0.05). It was found that there were 58.3% of the students with left brain dominance, 25.6% right-brained students and 16.1% with whole-brained. Besides that, race of a student had significant association with academic performance (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The brain dominance of a student has no significant relationship with academic performance. Hence, students do not have to worry which brain dominant are they and can focus on other factors affecting academic performance. Seminars and campaigns should be conducted to address students that early preparation for exam is vital to have excellent academic performance.

Keywords :Brain dominance; academic performance; undergraduates; medical student; cross-sectional study

 

Rare Double Heterozygous of HbD/HbG in a Nigerian: A Case Report

Abstracts

Aim: To advocate the use of newer and improved methods towards accurate diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies

Case Presentation: A rare case of double heterozygous of HbD/G in a pregnant female Nigerian who had present to the antenatal clinic for routine Haemoglobin electrophoresis. She had previously been diagnosed as HbAS using capillary electrophoresis and HPLC techniques.

Discussion: Capillary zone electrophoretograms showed the presence of peaks in zone Hb A, Hb D, C and a small peak in Z1 zone. Bio-Rad D10 chromatogram also indicated the presence of four peaks which are identified as Hb A, Hb D, Hb G, and hybrid of HbD/HbG. A peak in Hb D zone of capillary electrophoresis was due to co-migration of Hb D and Hb G variants. The small peak in Z1 zone indicated the presence of alpha chain variant of HbG.

Conclusion: The case exemplifies the need to use more advanced methods, including DNA analysis in order to accurately diagnose haemoglobinopathies in the nation with the largest burden of sickle cell disease.

Keywords : Haemoglobinopathies; haemoglobin electrophoresis; heterozygous; high performance liquid chromatography.

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The Spectrum of Psychiatric Morbidity in Surgical Wards of a State Government Hospital in Benin City, Nigeria

Abstracts

Aim: To determine the incidences and types of psychiatric disorders, mortality, bed stay and management challenges found in our surgical in-patients.

Methods: A three-year retrospective study in which all cases with co-morbid psychiatric disorders admitted into the surgical wards of Central Hospital Benin city, Nigeria was carried out.   

Results: Sixty surgical patients with psychiatric co-morbidity made up of 40 males and 20 females in a ratio of 2 to 1 were studied. 2.3% of all surgical admissions during the study period had psychiatric co-morbidity.

The patients’ ages ranged from 18 to 90 years with a mean age of 44.7 years and the median age of 45 years. 

Post-operative delirium cases formed the bulk of psychiatric co-morbidity (50%) while road traffic accidents involving homeless people with psychosis (31.7%) made up the majority of the surgical disorders seen in this study.

The mortality rate in this study was 40% and 87.5% of deaths occurred in cases that developed delirium after surgery.

The bed stay of the patients ranged from 11.7 to 60.9 days with a mean of 33.1 days.

Conclusion: There were management challenges, long bed stay and a high mortality in surgical patients with psychiatric comorbidity. 

A greater care of road traffic accident cases and early identification of mental illness in surgical patients are important. An alternative pain drug control for sickle cell anaemia patient is imperative.

Enhanced knowledge and awareness of psychiatric illnesses in the surgical wards is needful.

Keywords : Spectrum; psychiatric disorder; surgical in-patients; State Government Hospital; Nigeria.

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The Importance of Laboratory Investigation of Thyroid Hormones in Various Thyroid Dysfunctions in Enugu South Eastern Nigeria

Abstracts

Background: Thyroid disorder remains the disease of major public health importance in Nigeria. Clinical diagnosis in thyroid dysfunction is limited; hence diagnosis and management are dependent on accurate laboratory measurements and interpretation of results.

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the importance of serum total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4), Free triiodothyronine (fT3) and Free thyroxine (fT4) as reliable indicators to assess thyroid dysfunctions in Enugu Southeastern Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology (Endocrine unit) University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, from 2015 - 2017.  It comprised of a total of 1182 participants. 336 patients (110 males, 226 females; age range 20-75 years) with hypothyroidism, 336 patients (100 males, 236 females; age range 20-75 years) with hyperthyroidism and 510 healthy subjects (200 males, 310 females; age range 20-75 years) with detailed medical history.  After due consent, chest x-ray was done. Blood samples for serum analysis of tT3, tT4, fT4, fT3 and thyrotropin (TSH) were collected between 8 to 10 am using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The Pearson correlation between tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4 and TSH was determined to identify the valuable indicator for thyroid function besides TSH.

Result: The correlations of tT3 and fT3 with TSH were statistically significant in healthy population  P = .003,  .015 and   r-values  were .130 and -.108) respectively. The correlations of fT3 and fT4 with TSH were statistically significant in patients with hypothyroidism and (P <.0001) and r-values were -.480 and -.307 respectively. The correlation of tT3, fT3 and tT4 with TSH were statistically significant in patients with hyperthyroidism and (P<0001) and  r-values were -.459, - .337 and -.313 respectively.

Conclusion: TSH, tT3 and fT3 are the indicators of thyroid function in healthy population, TSH fT3,fT4in hypothyroidism. TSH, tT3 and  tTin hyperthyroidism.

Keywords : Laboratory; values; thyroid function; Enugu; Nigeria.

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Primary Bone Tumours at a Tertiary Health Centre in North Central Nigeria: A Ten Year Retrospective Review

Abstracts

Aims: This study is aimed at documenting the histopathological pattern of primary bone tumours in a tertiary health care centre in North Central Nigeria. These tumours are classified based on their biological nature and histological types. The gender distribution, age distribution and anatomical site of occurrence were also documented.

Study Design: This is a hospital-based retrospective and descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State in North-Central Nigeria between 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2015.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed all histopathologically diagnosed primary bone tumours diagnosed at the Department of histopathology Jos University Teaching Hospital from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2015. Corresponding patient demographic data such as age, sex and anatomical site involved were obtained from case files, surgical pathology records and the cancer registry. Archived slides and re-cut slides from tissue blocks were reviewed.

Results: A hundred and twenty-eight cases were included in the study, amounting to approximately 13 cases per year. Benign tumours accounted for 64.8% of cases while 35.2% were malignant. The commonest benign bone tumours diagnosed are Osteochondroma (27.7% of benign lesions) and Fibrous dysplasia (25% of benign lesions). Osteosarcoma was the commonest malignant bone lesion accounting for 55.5% of the malignant lesions. The second decade was the peak period of occurrence of both benign and malignant bone tumours. There was an overall male predominance and the commonest bones affected were the tibia, femur and craniofacial bones.

Conclusion: Primary bone tumours demonstrated a tendency to occur more commonly in young patients with the male gender more frequently affected. The long bones of the lower limb and craniofacial bones were commonly involved.

Keywords : Primary bone tumours; Histopathology.

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Latest Research in Weight loss surgery

Research no -1

Modelling the Corrosion Rate of Buried Pipes Using Modified Artificial Neural Network (MANN) Coupled with Monte Carlo Simulation

Several researchers have developed models to predict corrosion rate in buried structures with excellent results using methods such as artificial neural networks, Monte Carlo to mention a few. This paper presents a novel approach to predicting corrosion rate in buried structures using Monte Carlo and a modified artificial neural network (MANN). Monte Carlo Simulation is used in this paper to estimate the probability of occurrence of uniform corrosion in buried steel pipes in different soil locations using the fixed walk method. The central limit theory and law of large numbers were utilised to reduce errors. While Modified Artificial Neural Networks was used to establish the relationships. Data used for this study were obtained from weight loss study of Nickel electroplated and non electroplatedAISI-1051 samples. The parameters measured were soil pH, soil temperature and atmospheric temperature of special soils taken from an oil producing site in Delta State, Nigeria. These parameters were assumed normally distributed. Corrosion Penetration Rate (CPR) was calculated for each scenario using the weight loss method. Relating these input parameters to the calculated CPR was possible via the employment of Modified Artificial Neural Networks, which makes use of the least square polynomial regression equations instead of the neuron box to avoid complexities in neuron number determination. Weights and Scaling factors were set appropriately to allow for easy convergence. Third degree polynomial equations were derived from the MANN and used as inputs for the MCS. Results from the MCS showed 80% correlation with data used and a reliable estimate for the CPR was achieved using this MCS-MANN approach. The CPR of the Nickel Electroplated Sample was less than zero which was in good agreement with the weight loss data. It is experimental that the CPR values for Non-electroplated samples were 60% of the time higher than the values for electroplated samples.

Research no -2

The Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Bone Health

The prevalence of obesity, with its associated co-morbidities, is on the rise, and bariatric surgery is proving to be an effective means of allowing sustained weight loss as compared to alternative strategies. Follow up data is starting to accumulate showing evidence of the impact on bone metabolism, with associated clinical implications, excluding pathological fracture at a relatively young age. Furthermore this effect is seen to be different with regards to what type of procedure is performed. This review provides a summary on this topic, including an overview of the background science of bone metabolism and relates this to the nutritional sequelae of bariatric surgery. Follow up data on each procedure is reviewed, and recommended management and monitoring strategies discussed.

Research no -3

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity: The Future of Bariatric Surgery?

The incidence of obesity has significantly increased worldwide. Surgery has proven to be the most effective long-term treatment for sustained weight loss and improvement of co-morbidities in morbidly obese patients. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a relatively new procedure for weight loss with lower surgical risks, which is particularly suitable for those patients at highest risk for surgery, either because of their co-morbidities or their weight. LSG is being explored as a viable surgical option for treating morbid obesity, after simply being considered the first step of a staged procedure in super-obese/high-risk patients to allow some weight loss before a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or biliopancreatic diversion-duodenal switch procedure. With the revelation that patients understanding safe weight loss after LSG, interest in using this procedure as a bridge to more definite surgical procedures has risen. Outright reported benefits of LSG include the low rates of complications, the avoidance of foreign material, the maintenance of normal gastro-intestinal continuity, the absence of malabsorption, and the reduction of gherlin producing mass, accounting for its superiority to other restrictive bariatric surgical procedures. Although early outcome after LSG are promising in terms of short-term weight loss, more studies are required to evaluate the long-term durability of LSG especially effective weight loss, maintenance of weight loss, resolution of co-morbidities, and the potential of gastric tube dilatation with weight regain.

Latest Research in Child abuse

Research no -1

Do Psychiatry and Family Medicine Residents Differ with Regard to Attitudes towards Treating Substance Use Patients

Background and Objective: Substance use disorders are a major health issue affecting many who present for treatment for psychiatric and medical problems. Substance use is associated with employment problems, relational difficulties, child abuse, tension and percentages of untimely deaths. Training and exposure has been shown to lessen negative stigmatizing attitudes towards the treatment of people suffering from substance abuse problems. In the current study, we investigated whether psychiatry and family medicine residents would have dissimilar attitudes towards these patients.

Methods: 23 psychiatry residents and 19 family medicine residents consented were asked write about the last substance abuse patient they treated to prime their memory and then complete a self-report that measures clinicians feelings about their patients.

Results: We found no statistical difference between the family medicine and psychiatry residents with regard to their attitudes and feelings toward SUDs patients they treat. Our results also showed that experience or year of training in the residency program was not linked with any significant different in scores on the CTQ scales.

Conclusion: This result is interesting given that psychiatry residents often have much more training and exposure to this population than their peers in this family medicine residency. But less family medicine departmental hostility towards substance abuse patient as a whole, extra training in the field of addiction for the substance abuse treatment could be possible for this cause.

Research no -2

The Phased Integrated Community (PIC) Model: A Framework for Care and Child Protection

Global cases of child abuse and neglect highlight the need to generate improved frameworks of concern, support and child protection. A number of models exist globally, albeit with limitations. This paper draws from the evidence base and a Ugandan study which sought to realize the existing mechanisms of support for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) including the availability, efficacy and limitations of these support systems. Building on the limitations of the existing interventions, this paper proposes the Phased Integrated Community (PIC) model, a hybrid framework that draws from existing models in the fields of social sciences and epidemiology to provide solutions for OVC care and support.

The PIC model critiques the inherent limitations of existing frameworks and adapts their unique strengths. The model also highlights that the notion of child agency is under-developed in most OVC interventions, arguing that this could partly explain their marginal impact, and then makes a case for incorporating child agency in childcare and child protection.

The proposed model challenges dominant discourses on childhood and focuses on the agency, aspirations and expressed wants of OVC. A key argument is that nuanced and accurate representations of OVC are critical to their support. This framework positions OVC at the heart of their communities, highlighting the limitations of some cultural and structural aspects. It is cognizant of the strained community capacity (rupture theory), in spite of its willingness to provide quality care and support. The framework also aligns itself with, and supports, national policy and cherished cultural values in Uganda that the extended family and community should be the first line of response for OVC.

Research no -3

Possible Effect of COMTVal158Met Polymorphism on the Association between Childhood Maltreatment and Externalizing Behavior: A Preliminary Study

Aims: Over the course of the past decades, studies on child maltreatment have increasingly adopted multiple levels of analysis (particularly by the inclusion of genetics factors) on the basis of the variability in children’s responses to worrying life events. This is a preliminary study on the effects of child maltreatment in a sample of adolescents according to this perspective.

Study Design: Case-control study.
Methodology: We investigated the moderating effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism onthe organization of child maltreatment with a range of externalizing behavior - assessed by the Child Behavior Check List/6-18 scale - in a sample composed of 52 maltreated children and adolescents and 90 healthy controls aged 10-18. Maltreatment was recorded on the basis of the presence/absence of physical contact.
Results: COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with physical contact abuse to influence externalizing behavior (p=.04), with both genetic (p=.03) and environmental risk factor (p=.003) having a significant main effect. Similar results were found considering the rule-breaking component of externalizing behavior, and the main effect of maltreatment was highly significant in all analyses performed.
Conclusion: This preliminary study supports the hypothesis that the variability in children's responses to maltreatment might be partially explained by individual genetic differences. Considering the presence of physical contact as a risk factor we could explain inconsistence of findings in literature on GxE in maltreatment.

How to stop predatory publication issues

Therefore Sciencedomain International took some proactive steps to fight against the predatory publication problem starting from 2011. Some distinguished operating principles of ‘Sciencedomain International’ are discussed below and the backgrounds of these steps are also discussed.

Problem : Predatory publishers falsely claim attachment with famous academic institutions like the publication of research papers from reputed universities, etc

Following Proactive Steps were taken by Sciencedomain International to solve this problem.

10.1 High Profile authors: High standard of SDI journals has attracted authors from world famous universities like  Harvard University,  Columbia University,  Cambridge University, University of Chicago,  UC Berkeley,  Göttingen University, etc. We are thankful to authors for keeping faith in our transparent high standard peer review process, high editorial standard, etc. Sciencedomain publishes a list of authors, who have published at least one paper in any SDI journal. A hyperlink of the published paper has been provided with the name of the author(s) for verification. This list is partial. Please see here: http://bit.ly/author-profiles

Agricultural Sector Performance and Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Abstracts

The study investigated the contribution of agricultural sector output to the growth of domestic economy in Nigeria for the period 1980-2014. Specifically, the study examined the causality between agricultural sector and economic growth, as well as the impact of the sector on the growth of the Nigerian domestic economy. Cointegration test, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Granger causality test were utilized in the analysis. The variables employed in the investigation include real gross domestic product (RGDP), value of agricultural output (VAO), foreign private investment (FPI) and financial development (FD). A stationarity test was conducted through the application of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) stationarity test, and the result showed that all the variables except RGDP were non-stationary at level; however, the variables such as VAO, FPI and FD became stationary after first differencing. The cointegration result indicated long run equilibrium relationship among the variables under study. The VECM result on the other hand, showed that value of agricultural output (VAO) has positive and insignificant contribution to real GDP. Thus, it is estimated on average that 1% increase in the value of agricultural sector output (VAO) would lead to 1.9% increase in real GDP. Furthermore, the Pairwise Granger causality result showed that significant causality exist between the two variables, with causality running from agricultural output to RGDP. It therefore, implies that agricultural sector output contributed positively and insignificantly to the growth of Nigerian domestic economy. Therefore, the study recommends that government should increase its budgetary allocation on agriculture in order to boost the growth performance of the sector. Similarly, the study recommends that government should strengthen agricultural credit agencies to enable them monitor and ensure efficient disbursement of fund disbursed to farmers in the country. In that, diversion and mismanagement of agricultural sector fund in Nigeria would be discouraged, and hence, agricultural output would improve.

Keywords : Nigeria; agricultural sector; economic growth; vector error correction model; granger causality.

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Flavonoids and Biflavonoids of Amentoflavone Class as Potential Psychoactive Drug Leads

Abstracts

Aims: There are several reported interactions between amentoflavone and CNS receptors especially GABA receptors and also reported interaction between flavonoids and opioid receptors. The current study determines other related compounds of amentoflavone, hinokiflavone and other flavonoid monomers with potential CNS activity.

Study Design: Natural and semisynthetic derivative of biflavonoids of amentoflavone and hinokiflavone class and several flavonoid monomers were screened for their binding ability to CNS receptor and neurotransmitter transporters using the Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Methodology: Natural and semisynthetic flavonoid derivatives were subjected to binding assays with 44 receptors and transporters. Only compounds showing ≥50% binding inhibition in the primary assay were subjected to secondary binding assay.

Results: In the secondary binding assay; significant binding with rat benzodiazepine receptor, dopamine transporter, GABAA, norepinephrine transporter and Sigma 2 receptors were observed. (+) Catechin and sakurantin showed significant binding with dopamine transporter (Ki= 1 and 1.6 nM respectively) compared to the positive control (GBR 12909; Ki= 1 nM) in addition to the biflavonoid 7,7″,4‴-trimethyl-2,3-dihydroamentoflavone (16517) which showed activity at Ki= 172 nM and we present the first report of its 13C NMR data. Semi synthesis afforded the new derivative 7,7″,4‴-trimethyldihydrohinokiflavone but it was inactive towards the screened receptors and neurotransmitter transporters.

Conclusion: Studying the structure-activity relationship revealed that methylation of amentoflavone decreased their ability to bind with rBZP, GABAA receptor and NET except for 7,7″,4‴-trimethyl-2,3-dihydroamentoflavone which was the most active among biflavonoids toward DAT. On the other hand, methylation of naringenin created new binding capability of sakurantin. Configurations of the chiral center at C-3 and hydroxylation pattern at ring B in flavan-3-ols greatly affect binding with dopamine transporter. Dihydrohinokiflavone and its trimethyl derivatives were completely inactive. Our study reveals new biological activity of some common flavonoids that may be promising drugs leads.

Keywords : CNS; catechin; dopamine transporter; sakurantin; amentofavone; NMR.

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Geomorphometric Parameters of Ikpa River and its Implications for the Planning of Fluvial Hazards in the Northeast of Akwa Ibom State

Abstracts

This article examines the geomorphometry of Ikpa River as a major determinant of the planning pattern for fluvial hazards in the Northeast of Akwa Ibom State. Geomorphometric parameters were computed for the entire area and the seven sub-basins sampled within the main watershed. A descriptive analysis of the parameters indicates that the dendritic Ikpa Watershed is a natural river with homogenous geologic formation and possesses high degree of integration of the smaller rivers. Sixteen geomorphometric parameters were measured for the seven sub-basins. Using Principal Component Analysis, four major geomorphometric parameters were identified and they explained 96.8 percent of the total variance. The four components were texture (34.6%), areal (33.2%), shape (19.0%) and form (10.0%)}. Relationships were sought among four variables using multiple regression model. Result of the multiple coefficient of determination (R) yielded 0.997, with the adjusted R of 0.982, which explained 98.2 percent of the proportion of variance in the series. The findings imply that the prevailing flood and erosion in the Ikpa River basin is associated with its geomorphometry. We recommend appropriate monitoring of the forms and processes; and the establishment of dam at the confluence of the fourth order sub-basin to regulate flood and other water-induced hazards associated with the downstream region of the watershed.

Keywords : Ikpa River; geomorphometry; planning; fluvial hazards; dam project.

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Natural Hazard Assessment and Monitoring in the Black Hills and Adjacent Areas, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, Using Remote Sensing and GIS-Methods

Abstracts

This research considers the support provided by remote sensing and GIS methods for the delineation of potential sites susceptible to natural hazards such as earthquakes, flash floods and karst phenomena in the Black Hills area in South Dakota and Wyoming, USA.

By an integration of satellite data (Landsat, Sentinel), evaluations of digital elevation model data (DEM) and DEM derived morphometric maps, meteorological, geophysical and geological data in a GIS database an overview of potentially affected sites could be achieved. The analysis of digital enhanced satellite imageries, digital topographic data and open source geodata contributed to the acquisition of the specific tectonic, geomorphologic / topographic settings influencing local site conditions in the Black Hills area influencing the disposition to geo-hazards.

Weighed overlay tools in ArcGIS software helped to identify causal morphometric factors (such as flattest and lowest areas) influencing the susceptibility to flooding in case of flash floods. This tool was used as well to delineate areas susceptible to relatively higher earthquake ground motion due to local site conditions. Visual lineament analysis based on Landsat 8 and Sentinel radar images contributed to the detection of the tectonic / structural pattern influencing the development of karst phenomena (dolines/sinkholes). Dolines were mapped based on Landsat 8 and BingMap Aerial images.

Whenever a natural hazard occurs in the Black Hills and surrounding areas it can derived by the analysis of the above mentioned data and derived maps, which areas are likely to be more affected than others during future events.

Keywords : Black hills; South Dakota; remote sensing; GIS; natural hazards.

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Yield and Quality Response of Chickpea to Different Sowing Dates

Abstracts

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from November 2015 to June 2016 to observe the effect of sowing dates on yield and quality of chickpea. The study aimed at finding out yield and quality response of two varieties of chickpea (BARI Chola-5 and BARI Chola-9), at five different sowing dates viz. November 05, November 20, December 05, December 20 and January 04. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The results of two varieties revealed significant variations in days to flowering, maturity, number of grains per plant, number of seeds per grain, the weight of 1000 seeds, grain yield, stover yield, biological yield and harvest index due to different sowing dates. Early and delayed sowings affected the chickpea yield and the quality of grain. Physiological responses of chickpea were also greatly influenced by different sowing dates that affect the proper growth and development of chickpea plants. In case of varieties, significant variation was observed in all parameters, here, BARI Chola-9 showed better performance than BARI Chola-5. BARI Chola-9 sown on November 20 produced maximum grain yield (2.40 t/ha) and the lowest grain yield (1.23 t/ha) was found in BARI Chola-5 sown on January 04. Irrespective of variety, early and delayed sowings showed lower performance on all parameters, significantly affected the yield and quality of chickpea.

Keywords : Chickpea; sowing dates; yield and quality.

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Identification of Insect Pest Species of Maize, Their Infestation and Damage Levels at Ziway Dugda Woreda, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Abstracts

The survey was carried out in 2017 main cropping season to support farmers for correct insect pest identification. Three Kebeles, Hallo, Sambaro and Herara with five farmer’s fields randomly selected. Ten representative plants were taken from each field. Data on mean larval density per plant, percentage leaf infestation and damage levels were assessed. Results from mean larval density per plant showed that significant difference between insect species (R2= 0.96, Pr (>|Z|=0.013) where the highest 1.55-2.30 was recorded from C. partellus. There was a significant difference between C. partellus and M. trapezalisS. frugiperda and M. trapezalis in percentage leaf infestation (R2=0.75, Pr. (>|Z|=2e-16) where, the highest were recorded from C. partellus and S. frugiperda representing 50-90% and 40-90% respectively. From the above, C. partellus and S. frugiperda were at risk, as a result insecticide was recommended. M. trapezalis showed a lower infestation level so that hand picking was more economical than use of insecticide. Hence, registration and detail molecular identification will be needed as M. trapezals is the first record on maize crop in Ethiopia.

Keywords : Maize; insect pest species of maize; C. partellusS. frugiperdaM. trapezalis; Ziway Dugda; Ethiopia; Hallo; Sambaro; Herara.

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Review on the Potentials of Cow (Bos indicus) Based Bioenhancers in Increasing Crop Yield and Farmers Income as well as the Soil Health and Environmental Sustainability

Abstracts

The haphazard use of the chemical fertilizers and pesticides has detrimental effects on soil health, human health, groundwater quality and environment. This will cause more dangerous consequences for future productivity. Present status of all food grain production is in enough quantity for the population of our country but there is need to enhance the quality of food production, quality of soil, quality of ground water and quality of a healthy environment for better livelihood. These qualities can be obtained by replacing toxic chemicals through natural and organic input which is more vital for present prospect and future outlook. The “Cow” occupies the highest place of honour in Indian civilization. She is supposed to fulfil all desires of human beings, hence known as “Kamdhenu”. Owing to ignorance, after stopping of milk production, they are left uncared for forced to live extensively and eat polythene and other wastes in towns and cities. It is interesting that in Indian agricultural systems “Cow” particularly those with a hump (indigenous breed) is one of the key components, hence provision of at least one cow per hectare need to be promoted for Jaivik Krishi activities in organic farming. This review paper attempts to bring together the different use of cow based organic formulations in crop production and protection. It has been reported that organic formulation in crop production is productive and sustainable, but there is a need for strong support to it in the form of manifestation of subsidies, agricultural extension services and intensive research with solid proofs. With these efforts we can fulfil the dream of our present government; to double the income of Indian farmers.

Keywords : Bos indicus; cow-dung; cow-urine; bioenhancers; sustainable agriculture; organic farming.

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Enzymatic Activity of Bromelain from Crude Extracts of Crown, Peels and Stem of Pineapples from Different Agro-ecological Zones of Thika Region, Kenya

Abstracts

Bromelain is an enzyme that has great commercial value and is of wide interest in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. In Kenya, large quantities of pineapple by-products are not well utilized although they can be a potential source for bromelain. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of bromelain in crude extract of different parts of pineapples from different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Thika Region, Kenya. Following extraction, protein concentration and bromelain activity was estimated using standard methods. The activity of bromelain for the crown from the upper (UAEZ), mid (MAEZ) and lower (LAEZ) was 89.57, 101.34, 100.78 U/ml and the activity was significantly lower (p<0.05) in pineapples from UAEZ compared to that the other two zones. For peels, the bromelain activity (U/ml) of pineapple from UAEZ (88.79 U/ml) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that from MAEZ (98.21 U/ml) and LAEZ (97.65 U/ml). The bromelain activity in the stems of pineapple from LAEZ (89.71 U/ml) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to those from MAEZ (85.73 U/ml) and UAEZ (82.27 U/ml). In conclusion, the study shows that pineapple by-products in Kenya can be a good source of bromelain, with higher levels of activity being observed in pineapples from the lower and mid-AEZ.

Keywords : Bromelain; pineapple; crown; peels; stem; agro-ecological zones; Kenya.

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Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Some Growth Traits and Yield Attributes of Pigeon Pea ‘Fiofio’ [Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.]

Abstracts

Conventional breeding methods such as mutation breeding could lead to an improvement in the genetic variability in local varieties. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the growth traits and yield attributes in two pigeonpea landraces (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp); white and brown varieties with the native name "fiofio" as used in the eastern part of Nigeria. Seeds of the landraces were obtained from the germplasm collection of the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Nigeria. These seeds were irradiated with 0, 200Gy, 400Gy and sown in a plot measuring 10 × 10 meters at the University of Calabar Experimental Farm during 2011 growing season. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was adopted during the planting. The result obtained revealed that percentage seed germination was not significantly affected (P>.05) by the gamma irradiation when compared to the control. But at the varietal level, white variety seeds exposed to 200Gy gamma irradiation recorded the highest percentage germination. The growth traits and yield attributes showed there were significant differences (P< .05) in all parameters studied except percentage germination while all seeds exposed to 400Gy did not survive more than two and half  months after germination. It was observed that there were variation between the two varieties under study, brown pigeonpea treated with 200Gy were more adversely affected as white pigeonpea treated with 200Gy was the overall best performing variety even when compared to both white and brown controls. This vividly revealed that gamma irradiation sufficiently encourages the improvement of these crops.

Keywords :Pigeonpea; gamma irradiation; germplasm; mutation breeding; yield.

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Production of Xanthan Gum Using Xanthomonas campestris Isolated from Some Plants Leaves in Keffi, Nigeria

Abstracts

Aim: This research is aimed to produce xanthan gum using Xanthomonas campestris isolated from some plant’s leaves in Keffi, Nigeria.

Study Design: To isolate and identify Xanthomonas campestris from some plant leaves (mango, orange, rice), to produce xanthan gum using Xanthomonas campestris, is done to determine the effects of fermentation time, temperature, pH, and carbon source on xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, from January 2017 to December 2017.

Methodology: Leaves with dark rot spots were collected from Keffi area of Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Xanthomonas campestris was isolated from the leaves were collected from Malt, Yeast Medium(YM), by following standard microbiological methods. Potato peel starch substrates extracted from potato peels were used as fermentation medium for the production of xanthan gum. The effect of time, temperature, pH and carbon source on xanthan gum production were observed.

Results: Xanthomonas campestris were isolated from plants leaves in Keffi and they were able to produce xanthan gum. It was also observed that 72 hours, 30°C, pH 6.0, potato peel substrate concentration 10% and sucrose as carbon source were the optimal factors  for production of xanthan gum using Xanthomonas campestris.

Conclusion: From this study it can be deduced that Xanthamonas spp isolated from leaves in Keffi are capable of producing Xanthan gum at optimal conditions, further studies to standardize the inoculum and medium for xanthan gum production is necessary to achieve a product of greater and better quality.

Keywords :Xanthan; Xanthomonas campestris; Xanthan gum; optimization; potatoe peel.

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Phenylpropanoid Pathway Response to Cadmium and Lead Stress in Phaselous vulgaris Roots and Leaves

Abstracts

Heavy metals induce diverse morphological and physiological changes in plants, but the actual mechanisms leading to integrated responses are not well understood. For better understanding, the metabolic adaptation to Cd and Pb stress in Phaseolus vulgaris, the alterations in the phenylpropanoid pathway related enzymes, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and also total phenolics and flavonoid contents were studied in the roots and leaves. It was found that Cd and Pb treatments caused an increase in the activities of SKDH and PAL, and in the content of total phenolics and flavonoids. In the roots and leaves of Cd-treated plants, SKDH activities were induced by low concentrations, while the highest activities were observed in the roots treated with Pb and in contrast, were inhibited in the leaves. PAL activity showed similar alterations in a dose-dependent way both Cd and Pb-treated roots and leaves of P. vulgaris. After the 3rd day, the decreases in the enzyme activities, and total phenolics and flavonoids content suggest that the stricter mechanism than phenolics, lignin synthesized from the accumulated phenolics to overcome metal-induced stress. Taking all the data together, it was demonstrated in this work that phenylpropanoid pathway was actively regulated by P. vulgaris plants in response to heavy metal stress.

Keywords :Heavy metals; oxidative stress; cadmium; lead; Phaseolus vulgaris; phenylpropanoid pathway.

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Studies on Removal of Heavy Metals from Tannery Effluent by Native Isolates of Bacteria and Fungi

Abstracts

Aim: This research work is aimed at studies on removal of heavy metals from tannery effluent by species of bacteria and fungi.

Study Design: This study is designed to isolate and identify bacteria and fungi from tannery effluents, to determine the concentration of heavy metal in tannery effluent, to assess the removal of heavy metals by bacteria and fungi from tannery effluents, to assess the effect of temperature and pH on heavy metal removal.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, between January 2017 and December 2017.

Methodology: A total of four (4) tannery effluents samples were obtained from Challawa industrial area in Kano, Nigeria. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the effluent and identified using standard microbiological methods. The heavy metal content of the effluent was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The heavy metal removal capacity by bacteria and fungi was also determined at different temperatures and pH.

Results: The bacteria isolated from the effluent were Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungal isolates were Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus niger. The identified heavy metals were Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Zinc and Iron. The bacterial and fungal load of the tannery effluent were within the range of; bacteria (2.9-4.3×105 Cfu/L) and Fungi (5.0×104- 1.0 × 105. Cfu/L). Out of the samples of tannery effluent obtained, the occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosaBacillus subtilisPenicillium notatum and Aspergillus niger were 100%.  The result of the study revealed that the values for the metals were above the maximum permissible limits of both the Nigeria Standard of Drinking Water (NSDW) and World Health Organization (WHO). All isolated organisms showed an affinity for Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn.

Conclusion: From this study, it can be deduced that bacteria and fungi have a high capacity for removal of metal from tannery effluents. However, there is a need for further work to be done to validate and improve these findings.

Keywords :Bioremediation; heavy-metals; tannery effluent; Bacillus subtilisPseudomonas aeruginosaPenicillium notatumAspergillus niger.

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Premna integrifolia L. on Enzymatic Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis

Abstracts

Premna integrifolia L. belongs to family Verbenaceae and it is believed to prevent cardiovascular disease as per Ayurveda. In order to evaluate the cardiac biomarkers and treatment efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of root bark in atherosclerosis. Sixty Wistar rats were divided into six groups and ten animals in each group. Rats fed with high fat diet and various concentrations of HAE treatment were studied and standard drug, atorvastatin was compared with HAE. This extract showed a significant action against atherosclerosis in a dose dependent manner which was studied in terms of lactate dehydrogenase activity, HMG-CoA/Mevalonate ratio, collagen content in aorta, levels of transaminases, calcium and other marker enzymes indirectly involved in the cardio protection. Alteration in collagen deposition in aorta of histopathological evaluation was noticed in treated animals. Anti-atherosclerotic activity of HAE of P. integrifolia was due to its modulatory activity on cholesterol metabolism and our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of P. integrifolia in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis.

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Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Abstracts

This study examined the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples of patients in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria using standard recommended procedures. A total of 338 clinical specimens of Pus, Aspirate, Ear and Wound swabs were collected from three major health facilities in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Each sample was cultured for bacteria isolates and examined for colonial and cellular morphology while biochemical identification was performed. Of the clinical samples collected, 50.3% were collected from male and highest rate of 37.9% was from age group 0-9 years and least rate of 7.6% was from age 10-19 and 40-49years. Only 32.9% samples were ear swabs, wound swabs (29.2%) and lowest rate of 16.8% for aspirate. Of the 161 Staphylococcus aureus (32.2%) isolated; there was no significant disparity found in relation to the study sites (X2=7.145, p-value = 0.308). The present study indicated a high prevalence rate of MRSA that require empirical and urgent intervention to prevent staphylococcal infection among the hospital patients and its outbreak.

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Study of Microorganisms Associated with the Chemical Compounds in a Tropical Soil

Abstracts

Soil is the most complex of all microbial habitats. Tropical soils have high levels of biodiversity and microorganisms that display fascinating mechanisms for interaction and biotransformation, thus regulating the mobility of chemical compounds in the environment. This paper will provide an understanding the relationship between chemical compounds present in a tropical soil and the microorganisms isolated from different sampling points in the biologically diverse area of Lepanto, Costa Rica. Microbiological (bacterium and fungi culture media), biochemical (oxidation-fermentation and catalase test), molecular (ITS and 16S gene fragments), thermal (TGA), and spectroscopic (FTIR, SEM-X-ray) techniques were used for this purpose. Four bacterial species, Klebsiella quasipneumoniaeKlebsiella pneumoniaeMicromonospora sp. and Paenibacillus sp., and three fungal species, Penicillium rubensPenicillium stekii and Meyerozyma guilliermondii, were identified. The soil chemical composition allowed the identified microorganisms to be associated with fatty acid groups, humic substances, aromatic compounds, conjugated ketones and carboxylic groups. In addition, metals present in the soil (Al, Mg, C, O, Si and Fe) were correlated with the activity of these microorganisms. The present study highlights the potential utility of the combined use of inference tools to identify ecologically meaningful microorganismal associations in environmental samples and the chemical compounds in a tropical soil.

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Unifying Equation and Rate Constant for Amylolysis of Glycosidic Bond

Abstracts

Objectives: The objectives of this research were mainly to determine the rate of amylolysis of glycosidic bond and to formulate a dimensionally consistent quadratic equation for the determination of the changes in the concentration of substrate, molar concentration of product and the parameter exp (k t) where k and t are the pseudo-first order rate constant and duration of assay respectively.

Study Design: Theoretical and Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry & Biochemistry Department, Research Division of Ude International Concepts limited (RC: 862217). The research lasted for about 3 months between May and Sep, 2017.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was adopted for the generation of data.

Results: The quadratic form of the equation for the quantification of the product of amylolysis gave results that were not significantly different from the use of usual equations (P > 0.05). The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond was 11851/min and the rate of formation of the product was 23686/min.

Conclusion: The quadratic form of the equation for the quantification of the product of amylolysis has a unifying value. It gives results that are similar to that obtainable from the usual equations. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond is ~ 1/2nd the rate of formation of the product. The making and breaking of bond seem to be the rate limiting step.

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Induction of Resistance in Poplar to Melampsora larici-populina Using L-form Bacteria

Abstracts
 
Poplars (Populus spp.) of the Family Salicaceae are extensively cultivated worldwide and are susceptible to a variety of bacterial and fungal diseases. In Populus species, leaf rust disease caused by several species of Melampsora leads to considerable damages in plantations.  Melampsora larici-populina is the most devastating and widespread fungal pathogen causing leaf rust disease in poplars. In this study, leaves and young stems of rooted cuttings of two poplar clones were treated with L-form bacteria of Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 8054, ATCC 6633 and then challenged with the spores of rust pathogen M. larici-populina. The development of uredinia was evaluated in the laboratory using the leaf disc assay. The L-forms greatly reduced rust severity in inoculated poplar leaves (local effect), while to a lesser extent in non-inoculated leaves obtained from inoculated plants showing a low systemic effect on pustule development. This plant- L-form symbiosis may have contributed significantly to a quantitative resistance to M. larici-populina indicating a promising implication for the use of L-form bacteria of B. subtilis as a biocontrol agent for poplars against the rust pathogen.
 
Keywords : L-form bacteria; plant-L-form association; induced resistance; Populus spp.; Melampsora larici-populina; leaf disc assay.

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Urinary Bladder Ruptures After a Long Party-night

Abstracts

Introduction: Urinary bladder rupture is a rare life-threatening event. Especially patients with alcohol intoxication are unable to provide a clear medical history. Physical examination often shows an acute abdominal pain. Under these circumstances, the diagnosis of a urinary bladder rupture requires a high index of suspicion.

Presentation of Case: After a long party night with consumption of alcohol, a 42-years old man wakes up with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination shows peritonitis- signs, especially in the lower abdominal part. Ultrasound detects free intraperitoneal fluid. The CT scan of the Abdomen shows perihepatic fluid. With the diagnosis of the acute abdomen without any radiological signs of perforation, we performed a laparotomy. Intraoperatively a 3x2 cm rupture of the superior wall is seen and closed with sutures. After the operation, the patient is received to the ICU.

Discussion: Urinary bladder rupture has a high mortality often due to late diagnosis. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is often associated with malignant disease, bladder outflow obstruction and neurogenic bladder. Alcohol-intoxicated patients are challenging cases in the emergency room. A clear history of the disease is not presented. In our case, the patient had no history of trauma or any known urological diseases. So, it is possible as reported previously in a few earlier cases that urinary retention in these cases may be due to rapid filling of the bladder secondary to the diuretic effect of alcohol. Moreover, nausea and vomiting might lead to enhanced intra-abdominal pressure and a higher probability of spontaneous bladder rupture.

Conclusion: Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is a rare cause for acute abdominal pain with a high mortality because of delayed diagnosis. Especially Alcohol-intoxicated patients are not able to present any history of the disease. Moreover a urinary bladder rupture should be considered by patients with alcohol intoxication and without any traumatic event or known urological diseases as it is presented in our case. 

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Physicochemical Characteristics of Roub; Traditional Fermented Dairy Product of the Sudan

 

Abstracts

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of fermented milk “roub” during the storage period.

Methodology: Thirty roub samples were collected (10 samples from each of Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman areas) in sterile polyethylene bags, preserved in sample containers in ice (4°C) and transported to the laboratory for analysis.  Physicochemical characteristics [fat, protein, total solids (TS), solids-non-fat (SNF), ash, acidity] were determined at 1, 7, 14 and 20-day intervals.

Results: The results showed that area from which samples were collected had a significant effect on all physicochemical characteristics of roub except solids-non-fat and acidity.  During the storage period, there was no significant variation in all physicochemical characteristics of samples collected from Khartoum except the protein content, while in samples collected from Khartoum North there was a significant effect of the storage period on the protein and total solids contents only, and in samples collected from Omdurman the storage period significantly affected the protein and ash contents and acidity of roub. Roub samples were good up to the end of the storage period.

Conclusion: The significant variation in physicochemical characteristics of the product indicates the differences in the source of milk rather than and/or the processing methods. Therefore, the authorities are encouraged to control this process by implementing legislations or prohibit the manufacture of this product in such prevailing conditions.


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Assessment of the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and Soil in Aluu, Rivers State, Nigeria

 
Abstracts

Aim: To assess the Physicochemical and microbiological quality of POME and soil in Aluu, Rivers State.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Omuahunwo, Aluu near Choba, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State and Department of Applied and Environmental Biology Farmland, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt in Rivers State.

Materials and Methods: Palm oil mll effluent (POME) samples used in the study were obtained from two local palm oil factories located at Omuahunwo in Aluu near Choba, University of Port Harcourt in Rivers State. Replicate samples were collected bimonthly from the same source. Soil samples were obtained from an uncultivated farmland about 2 km away from the factory and a control soil sample devoid of POME contamination was taken from Department of Applied and Environmental Biology Farmland, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. Samples were obtained from soil in proximity to the two factories polluted with POME. Samples were analyzed for their physicochemical and microbiological qualities.

Results: Palm oil Mills A and B had the following physicochemical parameters mean values: pH 5.48, 5.36; Conductivity 658μmhos/cm, 756μmhos/cm; total suspended solids 120,200 mg/l,122,000 mg/l;dissolved Oxygen 0mg/l (Palm oil mills A and B) ; BOD 5160 mg/l, 5200 mg/l;COD 432 mg/l, 4370 mg/l; Oil and Grease 165853 mg/l, 165900mg/l ;Phosphate 2.53 mg/l, 2.58 mg/l; Nitrate 68.83 mg/l, 68.90 mg/l; Ammonia 0 mg/l (for Palm Oil Mills A and B). Mean population of 8.25 x 103 cfu/ml, 3.6 x 103 cfu/ml, 3.2 x 102 cfu/ml and 12 MPN Index/100ml were recorded for total heterotrophic bacteria, filamentous Fungi, yeast and total coliforms respectively for the effluent samples from Palm Oil Mill A. Palm Oil Mill B had the following counts for total culturable heterotrophic bacteria, filamentous Fungi, yeast and total coliforms: 6.1 x 103 cfu/ml 2.5 x 103 cfu/ml, 2.2 x 102 cfu/ml and 8 MPN Index/100 ml. The most prevalent bacteria observed in this study were Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Arthrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The genera isolated are common and many of the individual species are able to grow on petroleum hydrocarbon. The fungal genera identified were Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Peniclliumspp., Candida spp. and Saccharomyces spp.

Conclusion: From this study, it was observed that POME could have a positive effect if discharged properly since little application of the effluent can enhance microbial proliferation which increases soil fertility. Most of the physicochemical parameters like BOD, TDS, Oil and grease, etc were above the limits of surface water disposal and land application by FEPA,1991 except sulphate. The organisms isolated in this study that utilized the components of the effluent might not be denitrifiers but are obviously nitrate utilizers.

 

Keywords :Palm oil mill effluent; omuahunwo; physicochemical parameters.

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A Review Investigation on Outdoor and Indoor Propagation Models

Abstracts

Path loss exponent has turned out to be one of the key challenges that are been faced in the telecommunications sector both in Nigeria and other countries. There is a great need to take a critical look at the various mathematical methods and techniques that have been developed by many researchers of which are used in the calculation of signal loss in telecommunication industry. This article draws the conclusion that all the methods are accurate depending on the condition(s) or factors after reviewing over fifty (50) journals. It was therefore concluded that the method that is applied to a particular situation depends on the surrounding environments.

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Isolation and Identification of Soil Mycoflora in the Upland and Lowland Soils of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State

Abstracts

A total of 14 different fungal species belonging to 7 genera were isolated from the upland and lowland soils of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between October to December, 2015. The mycoflora were isolated using dilution plate technique on Potato dextrose agar amended by 1% streptomycin. Identification was made microscopically using the lacto-phenol cotton blue method and macroscopically by comparing the cultural and morphological features with the help of authentic fungal manual and taxonomic key. The identified species are; Aspergillus nigerA. flavusA. fumigatusA. nidulansA. oryzaeAlternaria longifesFusarium oxysporumF. solaniF. mangiferaRhizopus stolonifer, R. orizae, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichophytum quallinum. The highest number of fungi (50 isolates) were obtained from lowland uncultivated soils (D), followed by the upland uncultivated soils (B) with about 34 strains, and the least (22 isolates) were obtained from upland cultivated soils (A) out of the total 132 isolates. Variations between sites were statistically analyzed.

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Effective Removal of Chromium (VI) Ions from Tannery Effluent using Chitosan-Alumina Composite

Abstracts

A chitosan-alumina composite was prepared by coating chitosan, a glucosamine biopolymer, on activated alumina to remove chromium (VI) ion from tannery effluent. Chitosan was prepared from by demineralization and deproteinization of indigenous shrimp shell collected from Khulna, Bangladesh and was characterized using FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) & Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The composite was prepared by simple solution-evaporation method and was characterized using XRD & SEM. Batch isothermal equilibrium experiments were conducted to evaluate the biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium (VI) from stock solution as well as effluent obtained from tanneries in local area. The optimum pH, dose, and contact time on adsorption was also investigated. Removal of Cr(VI) was found to be dependent on pH and maximum adsorption was observed at pH 2.0. The optimum dose and contact time for Cr(VI) treatment was 25 g/L and 240 minutes respectively. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich adsorption. The concentration of Cr(VI) was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the prepared chitosan-alumina composite was 90.17% and for tannery effluent the Cr(VI) removal efficiency was found as 87.88% under the optimum conditions. Efficiency of Cr(VI) ions removal in terms of adsorption capacity was found to be in the order of chitosan-alumina composite>chitosan>alumina.

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Geospatial Analysis of Urban Expansion and Its Impact on Vegetation Cover in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Abstracts

Cities world-wide are experiencing rapid spatial growth and cities in the less developed countries are already accounting for more of this growth. If such rapid growth is unplanned and uncontrolled, it would have adverse effect on the environment and in most cases, vegetation is highly endangered. Such   removal of vegetation cover causes great harm to the ecosystem and contributes greatly to the global warming effect. The aim of this paper is to analyze urban expansion and its impact on vegetation cover in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria using geospatial techniques. Landsat MSS imagery of 1973, Landsat TM image obtained in 1990, Landsat ETM+ data of 2001 and Nigerian Sat-1 image (2009) were used. Visual interpretation method was used to sort the various datasets into land use/cover classes. The built-up area and vegetation cover were extracted and the rates of change were ascertained for each of the landcover types. ILWIS 3.3 software was used for the analysis.  The results show that the built-up area increased from 14.3% in 1973 to 44.1% in 2009.  The city was growing at the rate of 5.72% per annum within the period studied. Within the same period, 81.8% of the vegetation cover was lost at an annual rate of 2.3%. The regression analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between increase in built-up land and vegetation loss at 0.175 significant level. The R value of 0.825 and R2 of 0.680 suggests that 68.0% of the vegetation loss in the area was accounted for by built-up. At this rate of vegetation loss and urban expansion, the city may be stripped bare of almost all her vegetation cover within the shortest possible time if no adequate control measure is put in place. This paper recommends: i) the application of geospatial techniques for proper planning and development of Kaduna and other cities ii) proper monitoring of the pattern of urban expansion proper decision making on the planning process.

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Peristaltic Pumping and Dispersion of a MHD Couple Stress Fluid with Chemical Reaction and Wall Effects

Abstracts

The dispersion of a solute matter in the magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic pumping of an incompressible couple stress fluid with wall effects has been studied. The mean effective coecient of dispersion on simultaneous homogeneous, heterogeneous chemical reaction has been obtained through long wavelength assumption and condition of Taylor's limit. The impacts of penetrating parameters on the mean effective dispersion coecient have been examined through the graphs. It is found that wall constraints and amplitude ratio favor the scattering, while couple stress and magnetic eld constraints resist the scattering during pumping.

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A Progressive Prolapse of a Left Ventricular Pacing Lead into the Right Ventricle in a Patient with Cardiac Resynchronized Therapy

Abstracts

This case report illustrated a progressive prolapse of a left ventricular (LV) lead into the right ventricle and pulmonary artery for more than 2 years in a 33-year-old woman with a history of congestive heart failure secondary to nonischemic cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block that underwent implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator with cardiac resynchronized therapy. This phenomenon’s mechanism might have been reverse reel or ratchet syndrome. This phenomenon could be missed because the LV lead tip was fixed with unchanged pacing measurements and the course of the thin LV lead could not be easily identified on chest radiographs.

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Foreign Body Impacted in the Submassetric Region-A Case Report

Abstracts

A foreign body is an object lying partially or completely within the body that originated from the external environment. Foreign bodies are generally encountered in the orofacial region following trauma or iatrogenic procedures. If untreated can lead to serious complications like pain, swelling and infection. Here is a case report of a retained foreign body in the orofacial region of 32-year-old male patient. This paper highlights the problems associated with diagnosis, localising and managing unlikely foreign bodies at unusual facial sites.

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Multi-level Multi-objective Quadratic Fractional Programming Problem with Fuzzy Parameters: A FGP Approach

Abstracts

The motivation behind this paper is to present multi-level multi-objective quadratic fractional programming (ML-MOQFP) problem with fuzzy parameters in the constraints. ML-MOQFP problem is an important class of non-linear fractional programming problem. These type of problems arise in many fields such as production planning, financial and corporative planning, health care and hospital planning. Firstly, the concept of the -cut and fuzzy partial order relation are applied to transform the set of fuzzy constraints into a common crisp set. Then, the quadratic fractional objective functions in each level are transformed into non-linear objective functions based on a proposed transformation. Secondly, in the proposed model, separate non-linear membership functions for each objective function of the ML-MOQFP problem are defined. Then, the fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach is utilized to obtain a compromise solution for the ML-MOQFP problem by minimizing the sum of the negative deviational variables. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the proposed approach.

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Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Toxic Effect of Melanthera scandens Leaf Extracts Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Test

Abstracts

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicity of the crude extracts of Melanthera scandens leaves extracts using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) test in order to substantiate the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant in the treatment of different illnesses.

Methodology: Extractions of the dried powdered leaves of Melanthera scandens by maceration was carried out using ethanol and distilled water. All the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening using standard methods while the toxicity of the extracts was evaluated using Brine Shrimp lethality assay. The percentage lethality (mortality) of the brine shrimp were evaluated in six different concentrations; 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5 and 31.25 µg/ml and the lethal concentration LC50 for 50% mortality of brine shrimp after 24 h of exposure to the extracts was determined.

Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins and cardiac glycosides in both extracts. However, tannins and flavonoids were present in the aqueous extracts while phlobatanins and terpenes/steroids were detected in the ethanol extract. The Brine Shrimp lethality assay revealed that ethanol and aqueous extracts were effective against brine shrimp nauplii with LC50 of 173.78 µg/ml and 331.13 µg/ml respectively. It was also observed that maximum mortalities took place at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml whereas least mortalities were at 31.25 μg/ml concentration.

Conclusion: Results of the phytochemical screening indicated that bioactive phytoconstituents were present in this plant and that the ethanol extract showed better toxicity against brine shrimp with LC50value 173.78 µg/ml when compared to aqueous extract with LC50 value of 331.13 µg/ml. As a result of this, ethanol extract may be considered significantly active and have the potential for further investigation.

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Enhancing Soil Fertility Status, Sweet Potato Yield and Tuber Nutrient Composition through Different Manure Sources in Southeastern Nigeria

Abstracts

The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different manure sources on selected soil chemical properties, sweet potato tuber yield and tuber nutrient compositions. The high yielding sweet potato varieties are fertilizer responsive. Research evidences indicated that the application of inorganic fertilizers increases root yield, but hampers the quality of sweet potato. Inorganic fertilizers are believed to contribute substantially to human and animal food intoxication and environmental and soil instability/degradation. Better sweet potato root quality was observed at optimum amount of nitrogen supply especially through organic sources. Furthermore, the more toxic nitrite is often associated with inorganic fertilizer application in the soil which usually associates in the human bodies with gastric cancer, to which infants are at a greater risk than adults, for several reasons. In this end, many researches have not being done in this case as to cube or reduce the health challenges associated with the consumption of agricultural toxic foods. The treatments were built into a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with 7 seven treatments replicated three times. The following treatments were used; poultry dropping, Neem leaf, Moringa leaf, Rice husk Dust, Rice Husk Ash, NKP fertilizer, and no soil amendment (control). The soil parameters studied include; soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity, while the tuber nutrients analyzed for include; the ash, crude fat, vitamin C, moisture content, crude fibre, carbohydrate and crude protein. Results obtained showed significant differences among the treatments in all the parameters studied, except in tuber yield where all the treated plots yield same, but significantly increased the yield weight relative to the control. It was discovered that poultry dropping gave the greatest difference among other treatments in tuber yield. Generally, this study indicates that sweet potato production could be enhanced by the use of appropriate organic manure at suitable rate and at an appropriate time in the study area. It was also obtained that the soil pH and cation exchange capacity of the studied soils were highly improved mostly by the application of organic sources of the plant nutrients. The application of organic amendments significantly lowered the sweet potato tuber crude protein content, and increased the Vitamin C levels, thereby giving the organic sources of plant nutrients a credit as a safer way of producing food items that will give better human health safety.

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Probabilistic and Economical Design of Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Tank by Simulation Technique

Abstracts

Introduction: Rainwater harvesting is the collection of rainwater directly from the surface(s) it falls on. Rainwater harvesting through collection tank is an effective method. Numerous methods are available for determining the size of the storage capacity required to satisfy a given demand. These methods vary in complexity and sophistication.

Methods: The tank design method includes general thumb rule (5% of annual runoff), sequential peak analysis (simulating twice the length of the record), optimization (best one that suits objective criteria), simulation, probabilistic and economical design. Simulation water balance model which works on daily basis, normal probability distribution and economics are used in designing the capacity of tanks and it is presented in a graphical form. The tanks are designed for two different purposes like domestic use and toilet flushing only.

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Drainage Basin Morphometric Analysis for Flood Potential Mapping in Owu Using Geospatial Techniques

Abstracts

This study characterized the Owu drainage basin in southwestern Nigeria using geospatial approach with the objectives of examining the morphometry in relations to flood vulnerability of people in the region. Data used were the topographic maps and satellite imageries of the region. The data were analysed by both hydrological and geographical information techniques for basin delineation, stream ordering and digital elevation modelling. Results showed that the drainage basin is characterized by about 429 stream segments, and mean bifurcation ratio of about 1.9, and that about 23% of the entire basin area is susceptible to severe flooding. The study concluded that livelihoods and people in the flood vulnerable areas are endangered, and recommends preparedness for potential flood hazards in the area.

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Effects of Citrus Limon Juice on Serum Bilirubin, High Density Lipoprotein and Low Density Lipoprotein in Adult Male Wistar Rats under Variable Models of Stress

Abstracts

Introduction: There has been sufficient awareness on atherosclerosis but this has not reduced the number of people with it. Atherosclerosis is promoted by low density lipoprotein (LDL) without sufficient removal of fats and cholesterol by high density lipoprotein (HDL). Stress is linked with hyperlipidemia, lowering HDL and increasing LDL levels. Citrus Limon is known for its rich minerals and flavonoid content which have been employed widely.

This study is aimed at assessing the hypolipidemic effects of citrus Limon on Bilirubin, HDL and LDL levels.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of physiology, Delta State University Abraka.

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Response of Cotton and Soybean Intercropping System to Integrated Nutrient Management

Abstracts

Abstracts

Aims: Field experiment was conducted to study the integrated nutrient management on yield, all yield components and resource use efficiency of cotton and soybean intercropping system.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: Plot number ‘101’ of ‘D’ block, All India Coordinated Research Project, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India) during June 2016.

Methodology: As per the treatments, organic manure (FYM) and green leaf manures (gliricidia and pongamia) were applied 15 days before sowing of the crop. Vermicompost was applied on the spot to soil before dibbling of seeds in cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportions, soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with row spacing of cotton 120 cm and soybean 30 cm.

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Assessment of Probiotics in Infant Formula and Cereal Based Baby Foods Containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12– Update 2014

 
Abstracts

“Assessment of benefits and risks of probiotics in processed cereal-based baby foods supplemented Bifidobacteriumn lactis Bb12” from 2010 answered a request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority focusing on the age groups 4-6 months, 6-12 months and 1-3 years. However, the use of infant formula intended for newborns, supplemented with this probiotic, was neither asked by the NFSA nor assessed by VKM.

The notifier of the baby foods intended for infants and small children has provided information on three different cereal-based products intended for age-groups over 4 months and one infant formula intended for newborns, all supplemented with B. lactis. In its letter the company concludes that their products supplemented with B. lactis do not pose any health and safety risk.

Regarding health effect, we have already mentioned in our assessment (Halvorsen et al. 2010) that: “It is not the mandate of this report to evaluate the health claims related to the products as these health claims are assessed by EFSA.”

Our main conclusions regarding safety were as follows:
“No serious adverse events are reported, but neither has the effect of long-term intake of a single bacterial strain been studied. Furthermore, cereals supplemented with B. lactis Bb12 intended for infants and toddlers have not been studied regarding safety. We are not aware of any in vivo studies explicitly concerning the ability of B. lactis Bb12 to influence gene expression of epithelial cells”.

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Chemical and Physical Properties of Soils in Mt. Apo and Mt. Hamiguitan, Mindanao, the Philippines

Abstracts

Abstracts

Aims: The study was aimed to determine the edaphic qualities of two Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites in Mindanao; Mt Apo in Cotabato and Mt. Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental, the Philippines

Study Design: Random soil sampling within the plots

Place and Duration of Study: Analyses of the soil samples collected from each site were performed at Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory (SPAL), Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon, the Philippines from October, 2012 to December 2013.

Methodology: One hectare permanent plot was established in each site. Soil profile description was done in a pit measuring 1m wide, 1.5m long and 1m deep in each site. Soil samples for physicochemical characterization were collected within the plot. Soil physical properties included bulk density, particle density, soil texture and water holding capacity while the chemical properties included soil pH, organic matter, extractable P and exchangeable K contents using the methods employed at SPAL.

Results: Results showed that the soils in Mt. Apo were extremely to very strongly acidic, had very high organic matter contents, slightly deficient to very deficient in extractable P, low to very high exchangeable K content, low particle and bulk density values, high porosity, moderate water holding capacity and moderately coarse to moderately fine-textured soils belonging to loamy textural class. On the other hand, the soils in Mt. Hamiguitan were slightly to very strongly acidic, contained adequate organic matter content, low extractable P, low exchangeable K, low particle and bulk density values, high porosity, moderate water holding capacity and are moderately fine to fine-textured belonging to loamy and clay textural classes. Generally, soils in Mt. Apo were more acidic but with relatively higher fertility status and comparable physical make-up with the soils in Mt. Hamiguitan.

Conclusion: It was found that both sites have some soil constraints, particularly in terms of soil acidity and low nutrient availability to plants. Information obtained on this study revealed that identification of soil constraints are indispensable in formulating proper land use and conservation program.

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Nutrient X-Ray Energy Shift Studies in Wheat Plants and Soils

Abstracts

Aims: To check the effect of soil environment on chemistry of potassium and calcium nutrients in wheat plants with varying soil conditions.

Study Design: Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements on plant/soil samples. Study of fluorescent X-ray spectra and data processing to calculate shift in photo peak energies of nutrients.

Place and Duration of Study: XRF laboratory, Nuclear science laboratories, Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala during December 2013-March 2014.

Methodology: A pot experiment was performed on wheat plants grown on soils collected from different sites of six cities / town / village in Punjab, India. Low power X-ray tube set up for Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements has been used to record the fluorescent X-ray spectra of wheat plants and soils for macro nutrient studies. SOLVER a powerful program included in Microsoft Excel for Windows was applied to predict nutrient X-ray energies with precision 10-4 of channel width. The shifts in peak energies were evaluated with reference to that of plant/soil from an environmentally protected ground site.

Results: The shift in calcium photo peak energies was found higher than that of potassium photo peaks. In case of soils, the shifts are related to level of contamination of soils from sewage system, factory sites and road sides. The changes in soil nutrients’ chemical state  lead to these shifts and accordingly from studied shifts, the height of the contamination level  is approximated and correlated with the  population  life style of localities and environment of occupations on the soils like industries, farming and gardening etc. The shifts in nutrient photo peak energies in plants, generally, in opposite direction to that for soils signify the  wheat plants’ quality to cope with stress conditions.

Conclusion: Shifts in photo peak energies for nutrients can be used as tool to sense the contamination level of soil.

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Effects of Weather Conditions on Satellite Television Cable Network Reception Quality in Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstracts

The study examined the effects of weather conditions on satellite television cable network reception quality. The ex-post facto research design was used. The primary data were generated through personal observation/monitoring of Television sets that were connected to the three prominent networks (MYTV, DSTV, and HITV) in Warri. Rainfall stations were established in each of the sample areas and were used to collect rainfall amount between the months of May and August, being rainy season in the location. Additionally, wind speed, humidity, temperature and rainfall data were collected from the archives of the Nigerian Meteorological Agencies office in Warri for 20 years. A total of fifteen (15) TV sets and fifteen modems of MYTV, DSTV and HITV satellite-cable network were utilized for this study. Results showed that there is variation in the trends of climate parameters in Warri. There is variability in the rainfall, relative humidity as well as the wind speed trends in Warri from 1991-2011. The variations in these climate attributes have effects on the durability and functionalities of satellite cable network in the area. The reception quality for MYTV reduced from 69.8% on days without rainfall to 15.4% on rainy days during the study period, while DSTV signal quality reception was also reduced by rainfall and weather effect to 20.4% on rainy days from 85.6% mean on days without rainfall. HITV signal quality reception of 33.4% on days without rainfall was reduced to 7.2% by the effect of rainfall. Rainfall impairs signal quality. Further, the result revealed that there is a significant variation in cable network reception qualities of MYTV, DSTV and HITV. This is evident from the calculated F-value of 1028.136 which was greater than the critical table-value of 19.49 at 0.05 significant level. The r value shows a correlation of 0.989 between rainfall and MYTV reception quality.  However, the R² value of 0.977 shows that 97.7% variation in the quality of signal reception from MYTV is explained by other weather parameters. The r value shows a correlation of 0.994 between wind speed and DSTV reception quality.  However, the R² value of 0.988 shows that the quality of the signal reception from DSTV is explained by 98.8% dependency on weather parameters. Similarly, the r value shows a correlation of 0.970 rainfall and HITV reception quality.  However, the R² value of 0.942 shows that the quality of the signal reception from MYTV is explained by 94.2% dependency on weather parameters. The policy implications of the findings of this study are that adequate and well-implemented weather  monitoring with remote sensing/satellite-based platforms should be captured in the national laws of Nigeria.

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Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature over Climatic Zones in Nigeria

Abstracts

This study presents the analysis of rainfall and temperature across the climatic zones in Nigeria. Data from ten Global Circulation Models (GCM) regridded to a 1° x 1° spatial resolution was used in this study. Model evaluation was carried out for the models using ground observed data from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET). Based on the comparison of the models with ground observed data, the ability of the models in simulating the seasonal pattern of precipitation and temperature over each climatic zone and the whole of Nigeria differ to different degrees. Of the four periods, June, July, August (JJA) showed the highest deviation. The seasonal variation of rainfall and temperature across the climatic zones revealed the influence of the Intertropical Discontinuity (ITD) in rainfall variation across each zone with dual rainfall peak over the Guinea. The rainfall distribution showed that Sahel recorded the lowest rainfall while guinea recorded the highest rainfall.  Further analysis revealed that rainfall and temperature varied mostly in the sahel. The trend analysis of rainfall and temperature showed increasing trend in rainfall over the whole of Nigeria under RCP45 and RCP85. There was general increase in temperature for all RCPs across the zones and the whole of Nigeria. Further analysis revealed that sahel will experience more dry years in rainfall and more warm years across the zones for temperature. The changes in rainfall and temperature have implications in various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, water resources and health sector. It is well known that research and development complement each other. It is important that further research be carried out particularly in projecting the change in climate at regional scales. This will provide information about the expected change or variation in climate and hence help in the mitigation of the implications of the change in climate.

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Proximate and Mineral Composition of Bread Fortified with Mushroom (Plerotus ostreatus and Calocybe indica)

Abstracts

The proximate and mineral composition of two mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Calocybe indica) was firstly determined. The mushrooms was dried and milled into powder. The Mushroom Powder (MP) was used to substitute wheat flour in bread formulation at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The 0% inclusion served as the positive control while bread obtained    from the market served as the negative control. The proximate and mineral properties of the bread were determined before and after storage using standard methods. The study revealed that the ash content, fiber and protein content increased significantly with increase in the addition of the mushroom powder. Protein content increased from 9.12% in the negative control to 18.7% with 5% MP inclusion and 25.1% with 20% MP inclusion. Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc and iron content of the bread increased significantly (P≤0.05) with increase in the mushroom powder. The results from this study revealed mushroom could be used to improve the nutritional value of bread and this may help in the reduction of protein and mineral malnutrition prevalent in Nigeria and other developing countries.

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Chemical Sensitivity in the Elderly: Lessons Learned from Micronutrient Consumption in the Dutch Elderly Population

Abstracts

A food consumption survey in the Dutch elderly population (51-69 years of age) showed an increased trend in micronutrient supplement intake (36.4%; 120/347 participants). Because data on chemical sensitivity in the elderly is lacking, evaluation as to whether the current uncertainty factor (UF) of 10 is sufficient to protect the elderly was investigated using the micronutrient consumption data in the elderly Dutch population as a case study. Theories of ageing, and differences in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamics are briefly discussed in the context of chemical sensitivity in the elderly. Evidence suggests that for the healthy elderly, no additional default UFs are recommended because the present UF of 10 is probably sufficient. However, more research is needed to ensure that there is no additional risk, particularly in the not-so healthy elderly population. Although there is a trend of increased consumption of micronutrient supplements (i.e. vitamins and minerals) by the Dutch population, the existing European legislation for micronutrients in fortified foods (Regulation 1925/2006) and food supplements (Directive 2002/46) is now being translated to simultaneously set maximum levels of micronutrients in foods and in supplements. For the healthy elderly, no foreseeable risk is expected due to the consumption of micronutrients. For the unhealthy elderly, the effects of micronutrient consumption are not yet known and therefore, dietary supplement intakes need to be continuously monitored with detailed questioning on health status, supplement and prescription drug use. In addition, the generation of an international and up-to-date database on the composition of available dietary supplements is needed to fill the current data gaps.

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Changes in Glucosinolates, Sinapine and Flavonols during Seed Development of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz

Abstracts

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop whose oil is used as biofuel and the meal as animal feed. While the seed composition is widely documented, little is known about variations in the concentration of some compounds during seed development of camelina. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in the content of glucosinolates, sinapine, sinapic acid and flavonols (quercetin and koempferol) at different stages of seed maturation. Glucosinolates are accumulated in camelina seed in the first 4 weeks after pollination, while the other substances were transiently accumulated during development and may play a role in seed development.

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Comparative Study of Mineral and Phytochemical Analysis of Soil and Lactuca sativa Grown in the Vicinity of Cement Company of Northern Nigeria (Sokoto Cement) and Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (Kwalkwalawa)

Abstracts

Environmental pollution is a major issue which confronts industry and business in today’s world on daily basis. Industrial activities are the leading cause of metals emission, often associated with soil and plant metal concentration in adjacent regions. Cement industry is one of the 17 most polluting industries listed by the central pollution control board (CPCB). Impact of dust deposition from Cement Company of Northern Nigeria on the proximate and phytochemical concentrations of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was studied. A comparative study of heavy metal concentration and phytochemicals of Lactuca sativa and soil samples from Kalambaina (Industrial area) and Kwalkwalawa (non-Industrial area) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and standard analytical procedures respectively. Result of quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.05) in all parameters. Heavy metal values of Pb(0.012±0.002 mg/g), Zn(0.043±0.003 mg/g), and Ca(706.860±14.980 mg/g) in Lactuca sativa collected from Kalambaina revealed significant difference (P<0.05) when compare to samples collected from Kwalkwalawa and WHO standard. In addition, the heavy metal concentration in soil collected from Kalambaina showed significant difference (P<0.05) when compare to samples collected from Kwalkwalawa; with the highest value recorded in Ca (974.25±48 mg/g) which might be as a result of activities in the cement industry. Conclusively, plants grown at cement industries might not be safe for consumption.

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Clinical Outbreak of Dermatophilosis in Cattle in Kebbi State Nigeria and Review of Literature

Abstracts

This case report described a clinical outbreak of dermatophilosis among cattle in a farm in Yauri Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Thirteen (22.4%) out of fifty-eight animals were symptomatic for dermatophilosis. The diagnosis of dermatophytosis was made by clinical signs present, characteristic appearance and locations of skin lesions and the macro and micro morphology of the Dermatophilus bacterium. Infection could be related to exposure to ticks which were observed in the farm and associated climatic and demographic predisposing factors. Infected animals were treated using two administrations of long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg BW intramuscularly three days apart and ivermectin at 200 µg/kg subcutaneously. After three weeks, there was the resolution of the papules and crusts lesions leaving only soft pink-greyish scars on which hair regrowth was clearly visible.

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Biochemical Features of Perspective Forage Plants in the Conditions of Southern Part of Aral Sea

Abstracts

Biochemical features of nontraditional plants such as Columbus grass, Apple Earth, were studied on Southern Aral Sea’s conditions. Changing of important organic matters concentration in those plants were studied and monitored. Also specific characters, appearance and constitution of studied plants were listed and photos of those were given as well.

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Changes in Glucosinolates, Sinapine and Flavonols during Seed Development of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz

Abstracts

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop whose oil is used as biofuel and the meal as animal feed. While the seed composition is widely documented, little is known about variations in the concentration of some compounds during seed development of camelina. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in the content of glucosinolates, sinapine, sinapic acid and flavonols (quercetin and koempferol) at different stages of seed maturation. Glucosinolates are accumulated in camelina seed in the first 4 weeks after pollination, while the other substances were transiently accumulated during development and may play a role in seed development.

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Genotype × Environment Interaction and Stability of Sorghum bicolor Lines for Some Agronomic and Yield Traits in Egypt

Abstracts

Developing high performing and stable sorghum genotypes across different environments is of utmost importance to plant breeders. This study was conducted to compare relative stability of 25 grain sorghum B-lines under Egyptian conditions for some agronomic and yield traits. Six experiments with 25 sorghum B-lines were conducted at two locations in Egypt (Giza and Shandaweel) in two years and two planting dates in one location (Giza). A randomized complete block design was used in each environment with three replications. The three evaluation parameters used were mean performance, regression coefficient and the deviation from regression. Stability analysis was performed for five traits, namely days to flowering (DTF), plant height (PH), 1000-grain weight (TGW), grains/plant (GPP) and grain yield/plant (GYPP). The top five high yielding lines (G1, G3, G10, G12 and G25) displayed regression coefficient much lower than unity, indicating their adaptability to poor environments. The genotypes G12 and G20 exhibited significant deviation from regression for GYPP, indicating that they are unstable. The most responsive genotype for GYPP was G9 followed by G2 and G20; they are adapted to high-yielding environments. The three lines G11 (ICS-8001), G21 (BTX-407) and G24 (BTX -631) displayed above average grain yield/plant (GYPP), regression coefficient (bi) value near unity (1.07 and 1.05) and small and non-significant deviation from regression (S2d), indicating that these genotypes are stable and widely adapted to different environments. The most stable genotypes were G17, G19 and G6 for days to flowering, G1, G4, G22, G24 and G16 for plant height, G8, G17, G19 and G16 for grains/plant and  G14 and G22 for 1000-grain weight. These B-lines can be utilized as parental lines for the development of grain sorghum hybrids in view of their stability for the respective traits.

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Toxicity of Anchomanes difformis, An Antimalarial Herb in Murine Models

Abstracts

Aim: Anchomanes difformis (A. difformis) is commonly used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of malaria. However, there had been no scientific evidence to substantiate this folkloric claim in murine models; hence the study.

Study Design: We employed murine models for this in vivo experiment and Vacuum Liquid Chromatography as our separation techniques for the plant extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratories for Biomembrane Research and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences and Institute of Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria between June 2014 and August, 2015.

Methodology: Methanol Extract (ME) and methanol Fraction (MF) obtained from A. difformis were used to treat mice for curative and prophylactic experiments. Therapeutic doses (methanol extract therapy [MET] and methanol fraction therapy [MFT] 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered daily for seven days after confirming parasitemia. Prophylactic groups (methanol extract prophylaxis [MEP] and methanol fraction prophylaxis [MFP]) were pretreated for seven days before experimental infection.  

Results: Observed slides showed that there was no significant suppression, reduction in parasitemia or increase in clearance compared with the positive control. There was a significant reduction in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in the curative experiment compared with the unparasitized control (UTA). The PCV did not change significantly across the groups in the prophylactic experiment. White Blood Cell (WBC) values decreased significantly (p<0.0001) among the treated groups for MET and MFT compared with Artesunate (ART).  The ART’s WBC value increased significantly (p<0.0001) when compared with parasitized control (MCT). In the prophylactic group, WBC values decreased significantly with both MEP and MFP compared with the Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) group. In both curative and prophylactic groups, survival rate decreased significantly as the dose increased. While ME-treated group survived better than MF-treated group, no animal survived under the MFP 400 mg/ kg bw. Histopathology of the liver revealed toxic effects of all drugs used.

Conclusion: The results revealed that doses used did not have significant antiplasmodial activity compared with the control drug used in this research. Extra caution must be taken while taking antimalarial drugs because of their possible toxicity.

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Variations in Platelet Indices among Healthy Nigerian Population

Abstracts

Background: The degree of platelet activation may be assessed by platelet indices such as platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW). Platelet indices are potentially predictive, diagnostic and prognostic useful markers for platelet-related disorders.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet indices in a Nigerian population.

Methods: One hundred and eighty-six (186) subjects were enrolled for this study (102 females and 84 males). Thirty (30) of the subjects were ≤30 years, 108 were aged between 30 years-60years while 48 of the subjects were above 60 years. Three (3) ml of venous blood was collected from each consenting subjects into an ethyl diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant bottle at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml of blood. Full Blood Count (FBC) was determined using the haematology autoanalyzer-Mindray BC-5300. Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance and student’s t-test were performed using the statistical package for social sciences-value was set at ≤0.05.

Results: Among the subjects enrolled for the study those with blood group A were 41, blood group B, 28 blood groups AB were 5 and blood group O, 112. The mean values for the platelet indices were MPV (fl) 9.547±1.170 and 9.682±1.054, PDW 14.69±5.181 and 14.54±1.946, Plateletcrit (PCT) (ml/l)1.362±1.173 and 1.47±1.150, among females and males respectively. The PDW varied significantly in the age groups except for ages <30 versus age>60, while PCT which measures the total volume of platelets in a given volume of blood, showed a significant difference for all the age groups. MPV and PDW correlated negatively with platelet in all the age groups and sexes while PCT correlated positively with platelet in all the age groups.

Conclusion: Platelet indices correlate with age, differ among age groups. This underlines the importance of reference ranges among different age groups.

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Locked Intramedullary Nailing of Fractures. Experience from a Trauma Centre in Nigeria: A Prospective Observational Study

Abstracts

Background: Locked intramedullary nailing of fracture has evolved as the gold standard for the treatment of fractures of the shaft of the long bones. It provides axial loading, controls length, alignment and rotational deformities of the injured limb. It also allows for early mobilisation of the patient. The procedure of locked intramedullary nailing is associated with many changes including logistics, expertise and cost for the instrumentation and the implants.

This study aimed to highlight the experience of locked intramedullary nailing of long bones fractures from a regional trauma centre in Nigeria.

Methods: Prospectively collected data on long bone fractures treated by locked intramedullary nailing from January 2007 to December 2012 were analysed and presented.

Results: Eight hundred and seventy-three long bone fractures were treated by locked intramedullary nailing during the period. Majority of the patients were males with the mean age of 28.6 years ± 12.2 years. Most of the fractures resulted from road traffic crashes 657 (75.3%), and the majority of the fractures were closed 648, (74.2%). Eight hundred and eleven (92.9%) of the fractures were reduced using the open approach. Six hundred and eighty of the fractures treated by this method had shown radiological evidence of fracture union at six months after surgery, and the recorded infection rate was 46 (4.8%).

Conclusion: Locked intramedullary nailing is a good option for treatment of the shaft of long bones in a resource-scarce environment.  The method showed good outcome with acceptable complication rates. 

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Phytochemical and Biological Studies on Crude Extract of Swertia chirata and Its Fractions

Abstracts

Aim: The aim of present study is to evaluate the pharmacognostic, phytochemical and some biological studies on Swertia chirata.

Methodology: Microscopic evaluation, fluorescence analysis, TLC, FTIR and HPLC techniques used for standardization of Powder and crude extract of S. chirata. Biological studies were performed in vitro through haemagglutination on all positive and negative blood groups at the dose of 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/ml, 0.625 mg/ml and 0.3125 mg/ml and brine shrimp bioassay at the doses of 1000, 100 and 10 µg/ml.

Results: Microscopic examination of powder of S. chirata showed important diagnostic features of the plant. The reactions with chemical reagents showed positive results for the presence of triterpenes, tannin, alkaloids, carbohydrate and sterols while the tests for saponins and protein were negative indicated the absence of these components. The fluorescence analysis of powder of S. chirata was observed under ordinary light and UV light at 254 nm and 366 nm. TLC, FTIR and HPLC analysis indicated the presence of active constituents in crude extract. The results of haemagglutination activity showed that the drug has highest response (agglutination activity) against B+ and O+ blood groups that is 80 % at the concentration of 5 mg/ml. The cytotoxicity test showed no lethality.

Conclusion: Phytochemical evaluation provides standardization knowledge of S. chirata. Due to presence of triterpenes and alkaloids. S. chirata may be used for therapeutic purposes. Haemagglutination and cytotoxic results indicated the safety profile of S. chirata.

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Predictors of Delivery at the Expected Date of Confinement among Women in Yenagoa, Southern Nigeria

Abstracts

Background: The expected date of confinement is calculated using Naegle’s rule that is 280 days or 40 weeks of gestation, but it is observed that most women tend to deliver between 38 and 42 weeks. Unfortunately, only a few women deliver exactly on the expected date of confinement, the reason remains mostly unknown.

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the percentage of women in Yenagoa that can deliver on their expected date of confinement, using the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital as a case study. It would also determine whether maternal age, parity, tribe, body mass index, birth weight and fetal sex have a significant influence on the date of delivery.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study of 3,420 pregnant women who were admitted in labour, and delivered at term in the delivery suite of the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, in Southern Nigeria. The study was carried out from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2012. A total of 2380 booked parturients living in Yenagoa, whose last regular menstrual period was documented in their case notes, including those who had an early first-trimester ultrasound scan, were selected. Data concerning their expected dates of confinement and the actual dates of delivery were retrieved. Also retrieved were maternal age, parity, tribe, birth weight, and fetal sex. Others include maternal height and weight at booking; these were used to calculate the body mass index. The data was analyzed after that.

Results: Majority of the women in Yenagoa 85.0% delivered at term, and only a handful 7.4% delivered on the expected date of confinement. Delivery on this date was associated with low body mass index, (BMI of 18.5 kg/m2) and male babies p = 0.006. Nulliparous women were twice more likely to deliver on the EDC than multiparas, Odds Ratio = 2.44, P = 0.002, and women with average maternal age of 25-29 years were 4 times more likely to deliver on the EDC than women ≥ 35 years, Odds Ratio = 4.93, p =0.0003.  Women from Yoruba living in Yenagoa delivered more on the EDC than any other tribe in Nigeria.

Conclusion: From our study, biological variables of the would-be mother and ethnicity stand out as some of the best predictors of delivery on the date of confinement among women living in Yenagoa, Southern Nigeria.

Keywords : Vaginal delivery; expected date of confinement; predictors; Yenagoa.

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Viral Skin Infections in Adult Patients with HIV/AIDS in a Tropical Rural Practice in Nigeria

Abstracts

Background: The skin, like all organs in the body is affected by several diseases in patients with HIV/AIDS. This is particularly so with viral skin disorders where impaired cellular immunity seems to be a common pathway of susceptibility. There are however few documented studies of these conditions in Nigeria and some other neighbouring west African countries.

This study aims to identify these skin disorders in patients attending the adult outpatient clinic in a rural/suburban health centre in the southern part of Nigeria and collate the differences and similarities to other related studies.
Methods/Design: This was done among HIV infected adult patients in the outpatient HIV clinic. It was a prospective observational study done in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Irrua Edo State Nigeria. The study was done over a 12 months period. All patients with skin complaints were included in the study while those without were excluded.
Results: Nine thousand, four hundred and sixty patients were seen during this period including new and old patients returning for follow up visits. Four hundred and ninety had different dermatologic complaints during these visits giving a prevalence of 5.17%. The male:female ratio was 1:1.4 and a mean age of 38±10 years.
One hundred and eighty two of these patients had clinical features of cutaneous viral infections giving a prevalence of 37.1% of cutaneous complaints. Herpes Zoster (27%), Genital warts (19.2%), Plain viral warts (15.4%) and Herpes Simplex (15.4%) are the commonest cutaneous viral pathologies encountered. Others include Pityriasis Rosea (11.5%), Molluscum contagiosum (7.7%), and Varicella zoster (chicken pox - 3.8%).
Conclusion: Viral skin infections are very common in the HIV/AIDS population and they constitute a significant cause of morbidity in these patients.

Keywords : Cutaneous; viral; HIV/AIDS; pathologies.

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Alkaline Phosphatase and Simple Gray Scale Ultrasonography in Detecting Liver Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients: A Comparison between Bone Scan Positive and Bone Scan Negative Patients

Abstracts

Alkaline Phosphatase (s-ALP) has been extensively used to monitor the disease and screen the patients for cancer metastasis. Both the baseline s-ALP and changes in s-ALP have been reported as prognostic factors for treatment effect and survival in bony and liver metastatic breast cancer.

Aims: To signify the role of serum Alkaline Phosphatase in combination with simple gray scale ultrasound in detecting and confirming liver metastasis in breast cancer patients with and without bone metastasis.

Study Design: It was a cross sectional comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: Conducted at Karachi Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine between 2011 and 2012.

Methodology: Histopathologically confirmed cases of breast cancer were identified and bone scans were conducted. 100 females with positive and 100 females with negative bone scan belong to any age group were included. Liver ultrasound of all subjects was conducted, using simple gray scale ultrasound machines. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase was measured with the help of semiautomatic biochemical analyzer.

Results: Liver metastasis was found by ultrasound in both bone scan positive and bone patients. Serum ALP levels found very high (P value< 0.001) in patients with liver metastasis.

Conclusion: Positive liver ultrasound, using simple gray scale and high serum ALP levels strongly correlated with positive liver metastasis in breast cancer. Liver metastasis was found more frequent among bony metastatic breast cancer. A combination of routinely done, low cost test in determination of liver metastatic breast cancer will prove better detecting tools especially in poor resources settings.

Keywords : Breast cancer; serum alkaline phosphatase; liver metastasis; ultrasound.

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Care and Assessment of Early Development According to Cultural Paradigm

Abstracts

Organization of assessment and care during first years of life requires of theoretical psychological argumentation. Conception of historical and cultural psychology, introduced by L.S. Vygotsky is one of possible backgrounds for such argumentation.  Early childhood should be understood as a specific period of development or specific psychological age. Ways of care and assessment depends on the level of professional knowledge and preparation of specialists. The article offers an opportunity of inclusion of early development into general neuropsychological conception of child’ development. Developmental procedures and organization of life should be taken into account by parents, teachers and other specialists. Original conception and proposals of the authors in relation to attendance of newborns by Master Program in Neuropsychology in Mexico are presented. Organization of emotional and personal communication between adult and child in specific kinds of joint actions is the basic method for care and assessment. The authors discuss the possibility of establishment of methodological relation between understanding of systems of care of newborns and fundamental concepts of neuropsychological theory within historical and cultural paradigm of development.

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Burnout Syndrome and Anxiety Disorders among Hospital Nurses in a Tertiary Health Center in Nigeria

 

Abstracts

Most studies on mental health at workplaces have focused mainly on depression as a frequent cause of occupational disability among nurses. This study aimed at determining  the prevalence of burnout syndrome and anxiety disorders and their associated psychosocial factors among nurses. The study was conducted among nurses at the Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-five nurses were assessed in two stages. The first stage involved using a Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and GHQ-12. The second stage involved interviewing nurses with Structured Clinical Interview Schedule for DSM IV Axis I Disorder (SCID) Anxiety module. The prevalence rates of burnout syndrome subscales are 51.3% for emotional exhaustion, 84.7% for depersonalization, and 24.5% for personal achievement while that for GAD was 4%. Socio-demographic and work-related variables significantly associated with burnout syndromes were younger age (χ2=7.24, p=0.027), low educational achievement (χ2=8.01, p=0.005), stressful job perception (χ2=7.75p=0.005), junior nursing cadre (χ2=9.18, p=0.01), and having a great deal of involvement in report writing. These findings draw attention to the need for holistic approach to the management of burnout and GAD among health care professionals in addition to developing effective prevention strategies to protect their mental well-being and improve their effectiveness.

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Optimized Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Fibre Sensor for Glucose Sensing

Abstracts

Aims: This paper presents an optimised hexagonal photonic crystal fibre (PCF) geometry for investigation of relative sensitivities for 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water at a wavelength ranging from 1200 nm to 1600 nm. This work also shows an active area and confinement loss variation of the optimised hexagonal PCF when the core is filled with different concentrations of glucose solution.

Study Design:  Here, optimised hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) geometry is chosen where COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for simulation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh and Study duration was between March 2017 and December 2017.

Methodology: At first, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water with different refractive indexes are inserted through the core of the modified Hexagonal PCF. Then, the simulation is done by varying wavelength from 1200 nm to 1600 nm. Here, Comsol Multiphysics is used for simulation and MATLAB is used to plot the desired optical properties of the proposed PCF geometry.

Results: From this work, the relative sensitivities are obtained approximately 28.6, 33.09, 36.97, 40.37, 44.81 in percentage at wavelength 1200 nm and 35.27, 37.63, 41.15, 44.98, 47.87 in percentage at wavelength 1600 nm for 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water respectively. Again, the effective areas are found approximately 16.306 μm2, 17.285 μm2, 18.207 μm2, 19.209 μm2, 19.729 μm2 at wavelength 1200 nm and 18.823 μm2, 19.495 μm2, 20.21 μm2, 20.739 μm2, 20.954 μm2 at wavelength 1600 nm for 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water respectively. The confinement losses are approximately 2.1×10-8 dB/Km, 0.78×10-8 dB/Km, 0.15×10-8 dB/Km for 20%, 30%, and 40% of glucose solution in water respectively at wavelength 1500 nm but for 50% and 60% of glucose solution, the confinement loss is approximately zero from 1200 nm to 1600 nm.

Conclusion: High sensitive Glucose sensor is achieved with optimised Hexagonal PCF structure which was the main target of this research.

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Science Domain journals follow 'Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’

Science Domain journals are determined to promote integrity in research publication. ScienceDomain journals follow the guidelines, given by COPE for any publication disputes (http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy).

Publication charge of Science Domain international journals is extremely low compared to other open access publishers. It is commendable that even at such low cost they are providing transparent OPEN Peer review and post-publication peer review, DOI, permanent digital Archiving, wide indexing, etc.

Science Domain journals follow the guidelines regarding ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’, established by the COPE, the DOAJ, the OASPA. Science Domain journals additionally publicly publish a ‘self-compliance report’ for public and scholarly scrutiny (http://sciencedomain.org/journal/32/odc-compliance).

Since inception, this publisher is making constant efforts to promote integrity and transparency. It is completely baseless libel that SCIENCE DOMAIN international is a predatory publisher, as no other publisher put these much efforts to adhere to best publishing practices.

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Transparent Advanced OPEN peer review 

 

It has been noted that many academicians from world famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc have published their valuable papers with Sciencedomain journals. Please see gere for some proof (http://www.sciencedomain.org/page.php?id=author-profiles). Most probably these academicians have trusted Sciencedomain International due to transparent policies that include the standards of peer review process (Advanced Open Peer review), good indexing coverage, high editorial benchmarks, and many more. One must go through the terms and conditions of submission and publication policies in order to have a clear idea about the working style of this publisher. This publisher has always focused on providing readers with relevant information without any hassle.

 

As per a report (Link) of one of the world’s most famous journal (Science), one of the journal of Sciencedomain (British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research) passed a stringent test of quality of Peer review by rejecting a fake article (Link1, Link2, Link3). This is a verifiable proof of the dedication and hard-work of the peer reviewers and editors to maintain the high standard of journals. It was reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected the fake article after substantial peer review. Sciencedomain’s journal was among these few successful journals along with industry leaders like PLoS One, Hindawi, etc. It is imperative that the result of this experiment also proved the efficacy of transparent Advanced OPEN peer review and ‘post publication’ peer review system.

All these examples clearly stand against the working principle of some predatory publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.

Reference: Who's Afraid of Peer Review? Science, 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6154 pp. 60-65, DOI: 10.1126/science.342.6154.60

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Science Domain journals are attracting huge visitors

Publication charge of Science Domain international journals is extremely low compared to other open access publishers who often charge several hundred or thousands of dollars from authors. It is commendable that even at such low cost they are providing excellent and transparent OPEN Peer review service, DOI, permanent digital Archiving, wide indexing, etc. Papers published in Science Domain journals are attracting huge visitors as more than two millions visitors visited their journals with more than 7.9 million page view (see: http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/publication-and-site-statistics-up-to-sept-2015). It has attracted more than 22 thousands manuscript submission and published more than ten thousands papers. It is really an exciting record for any new publisher. Science Domain international journal Web sites provide the ability for users to comment on articles to facilitate community evaluation and discourse around published articles. Comment section is mainly dedicated to promote "Post-publication peer review". Therefore, all Science Domain international journals strictly follow 'pre-publication OPEN peer review' and strongly encourage "Post-publication peer review".  Science Domain international journals follow transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system (Detailed general information is available in this link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_peer_review). High quality manuscripts are peer-reviewed by minimum two peers of the same field. OPEN peer review system provides the provision to reveal the identities of the authors and reviewers to each other during review process. In order to add transparency further, details of all reviewers and academic editors are published in the first page of every published paper (in the Article Information section: see example). As a final step to provide highest level transparency in the process, all review comments, authors' feedbacks, all versions of the manuscript and editorial comments are published (along with date) with the paper in 'Review History' link (See example 1example 2example 3, etc). This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review.

Science Domain journals are determined to promote integrity in research publication. Science Domain journals follow the guidelines, given by COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS (COPE) for any publication disputes, authorship disputes, etc. Please see following three pages to know the related polices followed by SDI journal.

a. General Editorial policy: http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy

b. Plagiarism related policy: http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy#SDI-plagiarism-policy

c. Correction and retraction policy is available here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/sdi-general-editorial-policy#SDI_Correction_and_retraction_policy

Examples of some cases are presented below. Detailed investigation reports and communications are digitally archived. 

1. Example 1 (http://sciencedomain.org/abstract/8409)

2. Example 2 (http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/8741)

3. Example 3 (http://sciencedomain.org/abstract/6115)

4. Example 4 (http://sciencedomain.org/abstract/6118)

Science Domain journals follow the excellent guidelines regarding ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’, established by the Committee on Publication Ethics, the Directory of Open Access Journals, the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association and the World Association of Medical Editors. Science Domain journals sincerely thank OASPA-DOAJ-COPE-WAME for this great effort. Science Domain journals additionally publicly publish a ‘self-compliance report’ for public and scholarly scrutiny. Science Domain journals heartily welcome any valuable feedback to improve (see here: http://sciencedomain.org/journal/32/odc-compliance).

Since inception, this publisher is making constant efforts to promote integrity and transparency. It is completely baseless libel that SCIENCE DOMAIN international is a predatory publisher, as no other publisher put these much efforts to adhere to best publishing practices.

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Sciencedomain provide transparent advanced open peer review

SCIENCE DOMAIN international offers a great opportunity to the scientists and scholars to publish their findings and research papers, so that the interested readers can easily access them through internet free of cost. Sciencedomain provide transparent advanced open peer review, indexing, DOI service, permanent digital archiving with Portico, etc. This publisher claims that a dedicated indexing team is working to include all journals in reputed indexing services or journal evaluation services or catalogue or reference citations, etc. As a result, within a short span of time their journals have been included in many databases and the number is increasing every month.

It is really commendable that this publisher strongly encourage authors to take more informed decision before submission of any manuscript. In order to help the authors to take 'more informed decision' and to substantiate their claims, this publisher is providing web-links/proofs beside most of their claims of indexing or journal evaluation services. They also advise that authors should visit the official site of the indexing organization or journal evaluation services before submitting any manuscript. This is really a good example for any publisher and authors may appreciate their efforts to maintain integrity and transparency.

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SCIENCE DOMAIN international providing readers free access to high quality journals through internet

If you are searching for a reliable publisher, where you can find free journals on different topics of science, medicine and technology, then you can completely depend upon SCIENCE DOMAIN international. They have earned a good brand name in the industry by providing readers free access to high quality journals through internet. These journals behave as a prominent link between the scholars of science, technology, etc. and the enthusiasts, who want to attain in-depth knowledge through the published research work and journals.

It seems that authors and researchers are happy with the transparent peer review service provided this publisher. High quality peer review should attract appreciation from all authors, irrespective of the nature of the review decision (i.e. Acceptance or Rejection of manuscript). Some of the testimonials are available here: http://www.sciencedomain.org/page/authors-speak. It is also mention worthy that this publisher provide the proof/web link beside every testimonial. As the email IDs of the authors are available in the proof, anybody can cross-check the authenticity. It is a good practice indeed.

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Science Domain International: an Open Peer Reviewed Journal

Science Domain International is a new and promising publisher of STM journals from India. The transparent and robust “Open Peer Review” model of SDI journals is very appreciable and significant for the academic community. They publish the entire Review History along with the manuscripts after completion of review process depending on the expert reviewers’ suggestions and recommendations. In 2013 an article published in famous Science journal (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full), which reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected a fake article after substantial peer review. Science Domain International journal was among these few successful journals. It also provides wide indexing coverage and provides public proof for every claim of indexing. It also renders the service of perpetual archiving with Portico, DOI for every article, plagiarism checking for each submission, etc. Their remarkable contributions are recognized by many academic organizations as mentioned below:

1. Science Domain International is a voting member of Crossref

(Please see here: http://www.crossref.org/01company/06publishers.html). CrossRef is an association of scholarly publishers that develops shared infrastructure to support more effective scholarly communications. Famous publishers like Elsevier, Nature, Springer, etc are also voting members of crossref.

2. Many respected indexing organizations indexed our journals after strict evaluation. Quality and authenticity of any journal is evaluated by these official organizations. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/abstracting-indexing

3. Many scientists from world famous universities like Harvard, Stanford, Cambridge, etc kept faith on the quality of our journals and published their valuable papers with us. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/author-profiles

4. We publish peer review reports of all published papers. This transparent OPEN peer review process is considered most authentic and robust by many researchers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_peer_review).

5. Famous Science journal (IF: 31) report confirmed the high standard of Science Domain International  journal. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/science-if-31-report-confirmed-the-high-standard-of-sdi-journal

6. Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland Govt. included Science Domain International  journals in its official report. Please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/polish-ministry-of-science-and-higher-education-included-18-sdi-journals-in-its-official-report-of-2013

7. Index Medicus (under World Health organization) selected our journals http://sciencedomain.org/announcement/index-medicus-selected-15-sdi-journals

8. Science Domain International is now member of PORTICO for Permanent Digital Archiving of SDI journals

9. US National Library of Medicine (NLM) Catalog included Science Domain International journals please see here: http://sciencedomain.org/page/abstracting-indexing

As a result of these achievements, many scientists from world’s famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc. published their scientific works with Science Domain journals. All these examples clearly indicates their stand against the working principle of some fake publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.

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Sciencedomain International has taken a huge leap forward towards success in the year 2015

Since the beginning in 2011, Sciencedomain International has successfully delivered a myriad of journals to the science enthusiasts. They started with only 18 journals but in 2015, they have created an extensive portfolio of total 35 journals. As the competition is fierce in the journal publication industry, a number of journals from different publishers were unable to leave their mark in the industry. On the contrary, Sciencedomain International has taken a huge leap forward towards success in the year 2015 by controlling 0.27% of the global publishing market. Their growth rate is remarkable, and it is reflected from their 0.01% to 0.14% growth in the first four years of their operation. This growth rate is far more great than some other leading OA publishers in the industry. Sciencedomain International really appreciates everyone's support to enable them reach at this current position in world publication market.   

Please see more information below

1. https://in.linkedin.com/in/sciencedomain-international-1524b7111

2.https://www.evernote.com/shard/s668/sh/a3fcd0a4-5cd3-45ea-a749-0ec3259921bb/84b16397ab8ff7839fc2c40090d4d4c4

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Home To Some Of The Most Informative Journals

Are you searching for a reliable website for journals associated with various topics of medicine, science and technology? If your answer to the above question is yes, then SCIENCEDOMAIN international is an ideal choice for you. Our website has an extensive range of journals and articles that you can access for free. We believe in establishing a trustworthy relationship with our readers and this is why, we provide them high quality international pieces of research papers through our website.      

Since establishment, we have been serving the most respected academicians from all over the globe by allowing them to showcase their research work on our site. We aim at promoting their content without any monetary barrier. We have been the first and foremost choice of a myriad of scholars and scientists, as all our policies are completely transparent that work well for our contributors.

At SCIENCEDOMAIN international, we have always laid emphasis on giving back something to the society, and we have successfully conducted this by sharing new ideas and theories through the journals linked to distinct fields. Our every journal is open to access, but we have a policy of charging for the subscription of the hard copies of the published work. We offer discounts of 25% on the bulk order of subscriptions as well as for the agency that arranges subscriptions of journals.

We are well-known to offer the toughest Advanced OPEN peer review system in which minimum two peers of the same field peer-reviewed high quality manuscripts. Our review system offers the provision to uncover the authors' and reviewers' identities to each other during the review process. In addition, we publish the details of every reviewer and academic editor on the published paper's first page, while publishing authors' feedback, review comments, different manuscript versions and editorial comments with the paper in the 'Review History' link.

So through our unique system, we have helped the reviewers to get their due respect and recognition by publishing their names with the papers. Therefore, our process has enabled the society to be highly beneficial in the long run, opposite of some rumors which state that we at SCIENCEDOMAIN international are a predatory publisher.

Please see more information below

1. www.preventionweb.net/organizations/17259

2. http://sciencedomain.scienceontheweb.net/

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Open Access (OA) 

Introduction

The Open Access (OA) movement started in 1960s and gained momentum in the 1990s with the advent of internet and digital archiving, etc. It was reported that the world famous physicist Leó Szilárd was one of the supporter of the basic principle of OA. Once in the 1940s, he suggested lightly that at the beginning of the career each scientist should be issued with 100 vouchers to pay for his papers. It is now possible to publish a scholarly article and also make it instantly accessible anywhere in the world where there are computers and internet connections or any other digital data access system. This social movement is mainly carried out by academia, dedicated to the principle of open access to information without any financial barrier to the reader/user, specially from the developing and under-developed countries. This movement slowly became the subject of much discussion among researchers, academics, librarians, university administrators, funding agencies, government officials, commercial publishers, and learned-society publishers.

Different Initiatives

In 1997, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) made Medline, the most comprehensive index to medical literature on the planet, freely available in the form of PubMed. Usage of this database increased a hundredfold when it became free, strongly suggesting that prior limits on usage were impacted by lack of access. While indexes are not the main focus of the open access movement, free Medline is important in that it opened up a whole new form of use of scientific literature - by the public, not just professionals. In 2001, 34,000 scholars around the world signed "An Open Letter to Scientific Publishers", calling for "the establishment of an online public library that would provide the full contents of the published record of research and scholarly discourse in medicine and the life sciences in a freely accessible, fully searchable, interlinked form". In 2002, the Open Society Institute launched the Budapest Open Access Initiative. In 2003, the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities was drafted and the World Summit on the Information Society included open access in its Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action. In 2006, a Federal Research Public Access Act was introduced in US Congress by senators John Cornyn and Joe Lieberman. In November 27, 2009, the Manchester Manifesto came as an initiative from philosopher John Harris, Nobel-winning biologist Sir John Sulston, and 48 others from the Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation (iSEI) at The University of Manchester.

Current status

OA movement is slowly becoming one of the strongest movements in scholarly publication and information sharing history. For example, in 2007, MIT OpenCourseWare, an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to put all of the educational materials from their undergraduate and graduate level courses online, hit a monthly traffic record of over 2 million visits. Since 2003 efforts have been focused on open access mandating by the funders of research: governments, research funding agencies, and universities. Many countries, funders, universities and other organizations have now either made commitments to open access, or are in the process of reviewing their policies and procedures, with a view to opening up access to results of the research they are responsible for. Harvard University through the Harvard Open-Access Publishing Equity (HOPE) provides funds for the reimbursement of reasonable article processing fees for articles authored or co-authored by Harvard researchers published in eligible open-access journals. Stanford university, MIT, York university, Boston university, Duke university, University College London, etc are also supporting OA movement. As per SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition), only in US more than 120 presidents, provosts, and chancellors of many large, small, public, and private U.S. universities and colleges have gone on record in support of the Federal Research Public Access Act (2009-2010 introduction) as of July 19, 2010. SPARC international currently have over 800 institutions in North America, Europe, Japan, China and Australia.

Source: All data of this page have been compiled from different internet sources, which are available in public domain.

Disclaimer: This page is created for general awareness about OA movement.

Please see more information below

1. https://twitter.com/sciencedomain

2. https://plus.google.com/114133649781310671507

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STM journals publisher from India

ScienceDomain International is a new and promising publisher of STM journals from India. It is noteworthy that this publisher follows Transparent and robust “Open peer review” model. In 2013 an article published in famous Science journal (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full), which reported that out of total 304 journals, only 20 journals rejected a fake article after substantial peer review. Sciencedomain’s journal was among these few successful journals. It also provides wide indexing coverage and provides public proof for every claim of indexing. It also renders the service of perpetual archiving with Portico, DOI for every article, plagiarism checking for each submission, etc. Many scientists from world famous universities like Harvard, Columbia University, Cambridge, University of Chicago, Yale University, University of Göttingen, etc published with Science Domain journals. All these examples clearly stand against the working principle of some predatory publishers, who don’t provide any peer review service and don’t provide the basic services of a standard scholarly publisher.

Please see more information below

1. https://publons.com/publisher/5994/sciencedomain-international

2. http://hubpages.com/@sciencedomain

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